Monday, September 30, 2019

Assessment of Malvolio in Twelfth Night

When he speaks to Cereals (aka Viola) he says â€Å"And one more thing that you never be so hardy to come here again. † This shows us that although he strives to be as â€Å"Puritanical† as possible, there are some things that he does have special feelings for and, In turn, these help us relate to him and understand his actions during the play. However, that fact can be interpreted rather differently and reveal a darker side to Million.Moreover, far from being the loyal and protective servant he can be seen as a sycophantic, lustful person who acts solely out of greed and his desire for power. An example of this Is â€Å"Her madam at your service†, as this shows his sycophantic nature and his craving to be closer to Olav. As you advance through the play this begins to become more dominant and leads to Maillot's lecherous behavior. This is exploited by Maria's letter, which plays on Maillot's imagination. He is overheard visualizing various fantasies such as †Å"l come from a day bed, where I left Olav sleeping†This leads him to developing an overindulged ego and he becomes â€Å"too big for his own boots†. Consequently he does not know his place and has a superiority complex. This makes him unpopular with both his masters and fellow servants. When the trick is played on him by Maria he is â€Å"blinded by self love† and is foolhardy and so he is an easy target for the prank. Another one of his bad qualities Is his tendency to take the smallest thing too far and make it a million times worse. This trait seems to take root in the fact that the can be over zealous in his duties for Olivia.An example of this is when he tells Toby to stop ranking and get to bed when it is really none of his business. This results in Toby, Maria and Fabian formulating a plan for revenge (the prank), which leads to Maillot's demise. Mad†) and quite cynical (â€Å"till the pains of death take him†) towards others. I think that Sh akespeare chooses to exaggerate Maillot's actions and emotions in order to make us laugh at him swell as suggesting to the reader that many Puritans are die-hard killjoys. This is due to the fact that they want to close playhouses, which, as Shakespeare was a playwright, was his life and source of income.However, at the same time, he shows us that although Puritans try to appear almost inhuman, there is a different side to them, which is shown to us through Million. The side in question regards the fact that they can have fun and that they do have feelings for other people around them. They are human and they can do all the things we can do like feel pain, sorrow, regret and humiliation as well as love, hope and affection. The evidence for this is presented when Sir Topaz mentally traumatized and humiliates Million. He does this by making Million believe that he is mad and doubt his own sanity.This leaves Million distraught and in a wretched state, as would anybody else who was subj ected to what Million was brought to believe. For Million these emotions continue to escalate until eventually they reach a climax during the ending scene of Twelfth Night when he is sent away dejected and unwanted by Olivia. This scene raises our sympathy towards Million, which ultimately results in increased dislike when instead of accepting Toby, Maria and Fabian apologies he vows revenge on them all. Through out Twelfth Night our view and feelings for Million are constantly changing due to the complex plot and character interactions.At times we can feel sympathetic towards him, but before the effect of these new born feelings can sink in, he has done something bad and our views change once again. This makes it hard to Judge Maillot's character. However, overall, I think he is a villain. This is because he has chances to forgive and forget but drags little things on and makes them worse. This is reflected in the ending as it ends with Million leaving Olive's Mansion Vowing reveng e on all who inhabit it. Although I think he is punished rather severely I think ultimately he gets what deserves in the form of humbling humiliation. By Curran Doyle

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Cesar Guarin “First Filipino Ultra-Marathoner” Essay

Will you gamble your own welfare for the sake of others? Cesar Guarin, a 56-year-old entrepreneur and the first Filipino, first Asian and fourth person in history to run around the world proved that with a strong determination and with a purpose to help, anyone can bring their dream into reality. Guarin is known as the â€Å"Father of the Philippines Ultramarathon†. He joined Global Run which considered as one-of-a-kind marathon and the toughest run ever that began 1983 and will end in 2016. He already finished the first four legs of his Global Run wherein he run 11,583 kilometers from 1983 to 2009. After his last run in US-Canada (2009), he will again venture in another run, 2,053 kms. in the Australia marathon, the fifth leg of his Global Run. After completing the Australia leg, he will run across- Middle East (2012), England-Norway (2012), Finlan-Moscow (2013), Egypt-Israel-Jordan (2013), Japan-Korea (2014), India-Myanmar (2014) and Thailan-Singapore (2014) to complete the marathon. Despite of different hindrances like injuries, Guarin continuously run and this time it’s for a mission. He started a fund raising projects called â€Å"Batang Pangarap† and â€Å"Global Run, Alay sa Pilipino† to help poverty alleviation in the Philippines, to reduce the number of children on the street by encouraging them to venture into sports, to campaign the tourism of the Philippines and to show his appreciation to the Filipino community abroad for helping the country (Philippines). Guarin as an Ultramarathoner showed to the world that Filipino is a one-of-a-kind race.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Technology

Chief among there is its convenience, efficiency and effectiveness in work, study, and research. It must be said that there are a number of substantial problems associated with the phenomenon of modernized technology. The one that springs immediately to mind is the potential risk of overusing technology in our lives. At the other end of the spectrum, there are many and varied merits to the concept of easily accessible up-to-date technology. Perhaps most importantly, it assists people to carry out their work faster. In my own experience, I found that technological appliances such as computer and mobile phone have assisted me a great deal in my occupation. As an accountant, I usually liaise with my clients to discuss about their account issues. Sometimes, problems can be solved via only a phone call. In addition, the aid of computer has reduced amount of my work significantly. At the end of the day, the positives effects of using digital technology and its convenience and efficiency for most people are more convincing than the negative aspects. If digital technology were never invented, our lives would be never wonderful as they should be. There is a school of thought which contends that features, talents and shortcomings humanity is born with determine our social skills and growth considerably more than any education and real-life scenarios throughout our lives. From my personal perspective, I am unable to concur with this view. First and foremost, it is clearly evident that while beasts inherit all the intuition needed for existence when they come into the world, humanity is virtually useless at birth and takes the first 20 years of life acquiring survival prowess. / To begin with, it is immediately apparent that off spring inherit incredible genetic †hard-wired† abilities at birth, but unless they are encouraged to evolve these, such talents will manifest themselves. / First and foremost, it is clearly evident that if an individual has skill at something, it becomes pparent in earlier youth. People do not wake up one morning as excellent/superb athletes or academics at the age of 35. Similarly, lack of ability or learning difficulties are usually noticed at a very young age. This strongly recommends that babies are neither born with distinct abilities nor they are. †¦.. At the end of the day, in the course of our daily existence, any educative processes and life-changing events exert far g reater control than aspects, natural abilities as well as weak points that are contained in our genetic make-up.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Using Inductive Reasoning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Using Inductive Reasoning - Essay Example The enlightenment process occurred in the writing â€Å"The library card† is essentially different from that which Plato has described. Plato in his writing is talking about the spiritual enlightenment which leads to salvation. It is about a divine awakening in a person which changes his perception and view about the whole world and himself. When the idea of a human being changes due to the enhancement of his knowledge cannot be completely categorized as spiritual enlightenment rather it is just a revolution in his thoughts and outlook about him and the world. Nevertheless, an intelligently awakened can find the path of spiritual awakening more easily as he is open to new ideas and concepts. The contradictions in two writing The author of the essay explains the way in which he had an opportunity to experience the sense of awakening with the help of different books and novel.  He is a black man had very little knowledge about the real living style and thoughts of white men. H e lived in a time when blacks were oppressed and considered nothing more than slaves. Nevertheless, he had a hidden passion for reading but found no access to books due to the situation he was living in. Even then he managed to get access to books and this was a turning point in his life. He had the chance of reading the predicaments of a white revolutionist who denounced the western customs and practices.H e also became aware of certain names he never knew before which the book mentioned. Slowly he was progressing towards more of reading which was changing his attitude and perception towards the white dominant society. He has been gaining enlightenment with the assistance of the books and novels he was reading. He was gradual that all the whites are not the same, people have different values and ideas. It was also realizing that it is not fair to view everyone in the same way as people are different in their own ways. This changes his attitude and behavior of white men. He was more compassionate towards them and also wanted to fight against injustice prevailing in the society. The difference in the enlightenment described by Plato and the author.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Plagiarism Among the Students Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Plagiarism Among the Students - Term Paper Example The essay "Plagiarism Among the Students" talks about the ways to reduce the chances of the submission of the plagiarized works by so that the students would use their own understanding, observation, and creativity to complete the task. Most of the students, while submitting their assignment, deliberately use plagiarized materials, so that they do not have to work the entire semester on their own. Plagiarism is when students quote material without their references and claiming their borrowed ideas as original one. Writing an essay and claiming it yours, truly demands originality. Students mostly use online websites and electronic media tools for their project and research assignments. Apart from intentional plagiarism, when students try to submit their papers more profoundly, they often mix their ideas with that of other various sources unintentionally getting involved in plagiarism. Students should acknowledge the originators’ reference and should keep in mind the ethical concerns. Using other person’s thinking and creative piece of writing is a very crucial ethical concern, whether it is taken from the internet or any other source. Particularly in the case of the internet, this problem is greater because it is easy to download the material as needed, edit and submit it. Information on the internet can be updated and modified without prior notice or that particular site, used by the student, might cease to exist later in the period, so students should deploy those sources in their assignments carefully and wisely.

Overpopulation in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Overpopulation in America - Essay Example He noted that without farming, the world population could probably not have reached half a million by now. The population of the world is expected to have a significant increase by the year 2050. This is pegged on the increased or advanced medical services, also the remarkable increase on agricultural productivity. By the year 2050, the world population is expected to reach over 7.8 billion among the underdeveloped countries, from its current figure of approximately 5.3. On the other hand, populations recorded in developed countries are expected to remain constant or to have a marginal increase of about 1.2 billion people. In particular, the population of the United States is expected to increase by 44 percent, differing from its 2008 projection of three hundred and five million to four hundred and thirty nine million people by the year 2050; therefore, it means that American will be overpopulated by the year 2050. Ironically, since the year 1970, American women enjoyed an average ra te of birth that was at 2.03 children per year. This preceded the1960s great â€Å"Zero Population Growth† (Zuckerman 45). During periods of 1960s, America was under populated or in other words it had a low population, a situation that swayed the Congress into formulating a bill in the year 1965, which allowed or facilitated immigrants into the United States. The 1965 immigration bill, oversaw the influx of numerous immigrants into the United States (Anchel 14). Since its inception, the immigration bill is still in full operation today. Within a timeframe of forty years, the immigration bill, had added one hundred million people to America’s population. It is true that America is adding about hundred thousand immigrants after every thirty days to its population without a pause. The monthly influx of immigrants for decades results to millions of immigrants becoming Americans. Therefore, it is apparent that the overwhelming American population is highly constituted by im migrants (Fielden 20). As America is grappled with accelerating its environment, its citizen’s quality of life, issues of boated cities, and among other issues such as water and energy, some of its laws or bills are busy adding more millions of people in the country (Anchel 94). Notably, the program of adding more people in population lack contingency plans, which would counter the problem of America’s population exceeding its optimum capacity. In fact, America’s population is at its optimum level. Dr. Albert Bartlett from University of Colorado once posed a question asking people to conceptualize a problem ranging from scales of microscopic going up to global. He continued the question by adding that the problem’s long term remedy empirically advanced, propelled and assisted by the increased population capacities on the levels of local, state, national or global. This outcry is showing the scholars are already worried of the current population trend in t he United States (Solomon 214). It seems that the underlying current and future effects of over population have not only been a problem among the scholars, but the issue is also of great concern among different groups. However, the issue is not lingering in the minds of the political leaders (Wooldridge 1). Contrary to politicians, the issue is of great concern to most media outlets in particular top newspapers, which include the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, Atlanta Journal, Dallas

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON FINANCE Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ON FINANCE - Annotated Bibliography Example This article is crucial for individuals pursuing finance and those conducting research in the field of public financing. However, it remains vital to explore other sources of information on the same topic in order to come up with a report backed up with adequate academic sources. DENG, M., MELUMAD, N. & SHIBANO, T. (2012). Auditors’ Liability, Investments, and Capital Markets: A Potential Unintended Consequence of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Journal of Accounting Research, 50(5):1179-1216. As the title suggests, the authors explore the effect of increased liability of auditors on rate of audit failure, cost of capital and new investment level. According to the authors, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2000 authorized stringier regulations, which increased the liability of auditors. However, these move increased the confidence of investors as regards the trustworthiness of company financial disclosures. The authors explore market imperfection in terms of information flow. They discuss a scenario where a firm in lemons market intends to raise capital from investors who have no information that the audit they are relying on is imperfect. The authors argue in their conclusion that audit failure is indirectly proportional to increased auditor liability and capital cost for new ventures. This resource is crucial for practicing auditors and accountants. It is also very insightful for professionals pursuing accounting and auditing career and conducting research. However, further resea rch is necessary to justify the claims of the authors. Bar-Yosef, S. & Prencipe, A. (2013).The Impact of Corporate Governance and Earnings Management on Stock Market Liquidity in a Highly Concentrated Ownership Capital Market, Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 28(3):292–316. In a situation with very high non-institutional ownership, the authors of this article explore how corporate governance machineries and earnings management impact

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Emergent Literacy and Alphabet Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Emergent Literacy and Alphabet Knowledge - Essay Example Blevins (22) writes that, â€Å"Children who have limited alphabet knowledge upon entering school may have trouble gaining the all-important alphabet recognition skills through the traditional â€Å"letter a week† method. Without the necessary memorization, early reading instruction becomes cumbersome and difficult.† This means that alphabet knowledge is a crucial pre-requisite of literacy development, and is not hard for the children to learn when they are already in their emergent literacy phase. A little effort from parents can do the trick. It is important to discuss how emergent literacy and alphabet knowledge may be taught in a classroom setting. Although the primary role in emergent literacy is that of the parents’, but teachers can also play their part in enhancing the preschoolers’ emergent literacy skills. One example is through games. Since the children are not yet familiar with formal reading and writing, games are very effective, which can be downloaded and installed in computer systems. Games include a wide variety of learning concepts, ranging from simple letters to words card games. Many games reinforce letter recognition and alphabet learning, using flashcards and personalized cards. Teachers can group the games according to each main literacy concept. Since teachers are the main source of inspiration for children, they should use a wide variety of new words and concepts in their language in the classroom. They should introduce descriptive words every now and then. They should read stories and poems to the children, to develop an association between them and the books. They should create sound and letter awareness through exposure to sounds through music, building blocks, puzzles, etc. a well-stocked library area... It is important to discuss how emergent literacy and alphabet knowledge may be taught in a classroom setting. Although the primary role in emergent literacy is that of the parents’, but teachers can also play their part in enhancing the preschoolers’ emergent literacy skills. One example is through games. Since the children are not yet familiar with formal reading and writing, games are very effective, which can be downloaded and installed in computer systems. Games include a wide variety of learning concepts, ranging from simple letters to words card games. Many games reinforce letter recognition and alphabet learning, using flashcards and personalized cards. Teachers can group the games according to each main literacy concept. Since teachers are the main source of inspiration for children, they should use a wide variety of new words and concepts in their language in the classroom. They should introduce descriptive words every now and then. They should read stories and poems to the children, to develop an association between them and the books. They should create sound and letter awareness through exposure to sounds through music, building blocks, puzzles, etc. a well-stocked library area should always be there for the children to go to, where they can explore alphabet knowledge on their own. They should be encouraged to draw and scribble on the black/white board. Teachers should also make reading interactive through choral repetition and pointing-at-a-picture method.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Management - Essay Example Operations, quite differently from other major organization’s functional areas such as financing, marketing, accounting etc, are more directly related to an organization’s day-to-day quest of its main business (Summers, 1998, p. 1). Operational efficiency and effectiveness are critically important two terms in the contemporary business literatures, not only since they are of greater importance in strategic management but also they represent the most reliable aspects of growth and profits. This report chooses Dell Inc and describes examples of its strategic managerial and operational activities for critically analyzing the operational efficiency and effective systems to explain how they are aligned to deliver its performance objectives. Dell Inc: An Overview Started as a very small lucrative business in 1984 by Michael Dell, the company has now grown to become one of the largest computer manufacturer and multinational companies with strong strategic vision and operationa l emphasis on ‘going direct business model’, supply chain and build to order process, virtual integration and customer focus. As Holzner (2006, p. 5) noted, Dell was placed as 25th in the list of computer manufacturers in 1990s, but eventually, its operational efficiencies and technology advantages helped the company prospered while all other 24 companies have gone out of the list. It also achieved significant place in fortune 500 companies in 1992. With more than 63,000 employees, Dell Inc operates in more than 150 countries holding considerable market share in almost all the countries it markets its products and services. With a view to eliminate middlemen markups, it has created a strategic formula of direct marketing to help it maintain substantial cost advantages (Magretta, 1999, p.193). Michael dell has long been concentrating on operation efficiencies to be attained through strategic emphasis on ‘going direct’ model, effective supply chain process, v irtual integration and customization process etc. As shown in the depiction above, Dell in 2011 has been placed as third largest PC maker and marketer in the world just behind HP and Acer. Dell represented 12 percent market share in the worldwide PC market. Dell, though the recent market share and business performance has been accounted as quite below as compared to its previous years’ records, has been fostering on innovation, technology and efficient operation that in turn helped the company maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. When it comes to the business operation and operational objectives of Dell, it is very evident that the company has implemented superior managerial operation and most effective supply chain technique that have ever worked for Dell (Bozarth, 2005, p. 22). Various operational techniques such as going direct model, supply chain, customization, customer focus etc are analyzed below to review how these are deployed in Dell to achieve its organiza tional performance objectives. Going Direct Business Model For Dell Inc, the going direct marketing model has long been the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Statement of Purpose Essay Example for Free

Statement of Purpose Essay Knowledge comes by eyes always open and working hands, and there is no knowledge that is not power†. This statement characterizes my beliefs. Ever since I attended the first industrial visit during my sophomore year of engineering I have nurtured a dream of becoming a part of the top level management team of a firm. Now, after two years of relevant experience in the field of procurement in Supply chain Management, the power of knowledge seems to call me out persuading me to seek more. The dream I nurtured during my graduation has grown with me and I hope the day of realization is not far off. To make this a reality I intend to pursue an M.B.A in strategy and procurement management at your esteemed university. Soon after my graduation I set out to realize my dream by joining Olympic Cards Private Limited as a procurement engineer. After a year of experience I joined a top electronic manufacturing company (Foxconn International Holdings) in order to attain global experience. The company trained me in global procurement and appointed me as a team leader for the procurement team at Foxconn India Private Limited which I consider as one of the biggest achievement so far in my life. Early in my life, at the high school level, I learnt the value of hard work and perseverance. This led me to secure 90% in my higher secondary examination. Later this served as a foundation for my studies in electronics and communication at B.S.A Crescent Engineering College which ranks as one of the top accredited engineering college affiliated to Anna University in the state of Tamilnadu (South India). Besides this academic achievement I am an active musician and my passion for music has helped me to further understand the importance of hard work and perseverance required to excel. I was elected as the secretary of the college music association in the year 2004 and I performed at a number of prestigious venues around the city. As a part of my work experience I have gained knowledge in the following fields, †¢ Strategic development of suppliers †¢ Analyzing and negotiation of the quotation †¢ Management of contracts and agreements with suppliers †¢ Supplier performance evaluation †¢ Different kinds of P.O disposition †¢ Debit note and Credit note †¢ Inventory Control †¢ Documentation for the procurement department for TL9000 †¢ Part of internal quality and on-site supplier auditing team †¢ Key user for SAP R/3 Material Management Module This had provided me with a firm grasp of concepts and a launching pad to embark upon a voyage of knowledge in procurement. My study of these fields has also served to further fuel my ambition and deepen my interest in the field of strategy and procurement management. I got some very interesting information about my field of study by browsing your website and this has driven me to apply for the M.B.A (Strategy and procurement management) course offered at your prestigious university. The eight modules of the M.B.A program which include the Strategic Management, Organization Resource Management, Strategic Marketing, Financial Management, Operations Management, International Risk Management, Power Regimes Supply Chain Management, Business Strategy and Procurement competence will help me improve my cognizance in the field of procurement and I believe that studying at your university will give me the means to achieve my goals and realize my dreams. I therefore make an earnest request to consider my application for admission.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Plastic Waste And Management Methods Environmental Sciences Essay

The Plastic Waste And Management Methods Environmental Sciences Essay This dissertation contributes new and unique evidence to the debates surrounding plastic waste management options and their effects on the environment. A recurring theme in the debates around plastic waste management system is the extent to that whether the plastic waste disposal options give genuine benefits to the environment. Often, criticizers of the strategy drive towards larger plastic recycling assert that the act of recycling could be in fact has less or no benefit to the environment, consuming extra energy in the collection and transportation of plastic waste to the recycling facilities than is saved by the procedure of recycling. In order to notify this debate in details, this dissertation commissioned a key international LCAs studies. By reviewing considerable international studies, and employing rigorous criteria to filter out those studies that have less robust methodology and assumptions, after the number of studies screened 11 state of the art LCAs were selected for methodical study, including disparate scenarios. The result is more objective oriented analysis of the environmental encounters of different waste management methods for Plastics waste than one single study can deliver. Through the use of past LCAs, it investigates both plastic waste disposal options and environmental effect of the activities of plastic waste management by using meta and statistical analytical methods. Research methodology also considered, setting up a framework to review and selection restricting criteria for LCA studies. In so doing it provides the waste management methods performances with regards to environmental indicators. Persuading plastic methods have been chosen to comparing options :Landfilling, recycling, incineration and pyrolysis performances with regards to perusing environmental impact indicators: climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demands and water consumption. This dissertation focuses on recycling, incineration, landfilling and pyrolysis that are plastic waste disposal methods and their performance concerning climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption that are environmental impacts indicators. By reviewing past LCAs, it investigates plastic waste management options and environmental effect of the activities involved. For selection of LCA studies restricting selection criteria are developed. Meta analytical methods were adapted to synthesize and codify the findings of LCAs. Codified data were statistically analysed to calculate mean size effect. It provides the best, intermediately and the worst option concerning environmental performances of plastic waste management methods. The results are clear that all of the studies prop the following conclusions:. after comparison between of recycling, land filling, incineration and pyrolysis of waste plastic, Recycling appears to be a preferable management option over alternatives. Whereas, pyrolysis method emerged as a promising option for plastic waste disposal. INTRODUCTION This study grew from a meeting of two interests The authors academic interest in the environment and development issues, and work experience in the field of Polyethylene (PET) plastic. The main objective of this dissertation is is to contribute to the debate concerning the causes of environmental impacts of plastic waste management methods The following section introduces the background and significance of choosing this study area and context of the study. It also outlines the aim and objectives of the dissertation. Additionally, organisation of the whole study will be informed. Finally, justification of the undertakings the present study will be given. Plastics waste, need of a better waste management method and sustainability and plastic will be discussed. 1.1 Plastic waste and management methods Plastic is a durable, versatile material and relatively inexpensive. Plastic products have brought benefits to society in many ways such as quality of life, jobs, and economic activities. However, waste plastic also imposes environmental impacts. In view of the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable, it can remain in the atmosphere for a exceedingly long time and so plastic poses risks to the environment and human health, It is also difficult to reuse and/or recycle in practice (European Commission, 2013a). Many countries are trying to incorporate different strategies to increase plastic recycling rates. According to the Environmental agency (UK), statutory recycling targets have been given to all the local authorities in Wales (2012a). Whereas, in Scotland waste regulations operates without statutory recycling targets, and here funds are available for local authorities to help increase recycling rate(2012b). By making recycling mandatory or funding recycling a difference can be made to global environmental issue that exists because of waste. This dissertation focuses on recycling, incineration, landfilling and pyrolysis that are plastic waste disposal methods and their performance concerning climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption that are included as environmental impacts indicators. By using past LCAs findings, it investigates plastic waste disposal options and environmental effect of the activities involved in plastic waste management. 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study: The aim of this research dissertation is to identify environmentally sustainable management options for waste plastics. There will be an attempt to achieve the aim of this study by undertaking following three objectives. Objective 1: By reviewing, the relevant literature to address environmental issues related to the recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis and incineration. In addition to environmental indicators that are included in the study: climate change, depletion of natural resources, energy demand, and water consumption evaluating international processes to recommend the best legislation, policies and practices. Objective 2: Objective two is to set up a framework for LCA selections. Once LCA studies are retained Meta analytical methods will be applied to synthesize the findings of selected LCAs. Further, use of Meta synthesis for the codification of the LCA findings. Finally, statistically analysed the data to calculate mean effect size using Microsoft excel tool. In order to assess the environmental viability of recycling, landfilling, pyrolysis and incineration for waste plastics through appraisal of included environmental indicators. Objective 3: The presentation of the codified data sample will take place in this objective. Codified data will be statistically analysed using Microsoft excels (2010). To present in the form of histograms and charts, four management options will be assessed under each environmental indicator based on the results of each selected LCA study. To find out which one of the four waste management methods emerges as the best option regarding each or environmental indicator performances. 1.3 Justification of the study: Plastic waste management and its environmental implications are a majorly important issue and one of the major research topics of many governmental and environmental entities such as NAPCOR, DEFRA, WRAP, Recoup, Environmental Protection Agencies(EPAs) of majorities of countries and United Nation(UN). WRAP (2006) and Villanueva et al (2004). For instance,published a major preliminary environmental impact analysis of a different type of waste materials including plastic and comparison of recycling, incineration and land filling by reviewing international LCAs and the conclusion of that research is recycling offers more environmental benefits than alternatives. This research considered as high quality and information shared by UN and US EPA. However, there have been many waste management option emerged since WRAP report been published such as pyrolysis and gasification, Efw informs Jowit (2010). What is different in this study is the inclusion of pyrolysis, which as a new method was not included in WRAP (2006) and Villanueva et al (2004). Second gap that is addressed is the inclusion of one of the environmental indicators -water consumption in the impact studies, this indicator previously ignored by WRAP (2006) where the concentration is on Climate Change, Energy demand and Depletion of natural resources. To investigate and address these gaps the author will undertake past LCA studies. Findings of LCAs will present this in a new way. Additionally, the decision to use a meta- analysis approach originated from United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report on review of past LCA using Meta analysis (2012).however, LCA selecting criteria were not used in UNDP research, which is otherwise adopted in this present study to ensure quality of the result. This study will also try to find out whether recycling is environmentally, sustainable option for plastic waste as claimed by past studies or will emerging technologies will prove to be a better option. This report will also attempt to identify data gap in the literature review and recommend if there is a need for further research in the specific area for future researchers. 1.4 Organisation of the study: The research structure includes four sections. Firstly, Literature review section that will review the existing literature that is related to four waste management options, continuously building towards the significance of environmental sustainability of plastic waste management methods. Additionally, to give broader understanding of included environmental indicators will be studied. Review of international policies, legislation and measures that are pertaining to plastic waste management methods and environmental indicators. The main purpose of this section is also to identify a data gap in the literature. Secondly, by reviewing waste management methods author will try to find out which is the acknowledged environmentally sustainable plastic waste disposal option. Secondly, methodology section will describe adapted methods for data collection where data will be collected for this study to illustrate the broader issues of preceding sections concerning environmental impacts of existing waste management options. This section will explain rigorous criteria applied for selection of data sample. Meta analytical method steps used for codification will be outlined. Followed by systematic adaptation of statistical analysis using Microsoft excel to calculate mean effect size will be informed. Thirdly, presentation and interpretation of the results that are obtained from the analysis of data will take place. Based on the findings, discussion will take place in this section followed by recommendations to future researchers. Finally, the conclusion will employ findings of the dissertation and discussion as a reference in this section and research questions will be answered. More importantly, main aim and all the objectives in connection with the findings of this dissertation will be addressed in the conclusion section. Summary This section provides information that undertaken study area is vital and problematic. Justifications have been given for undertakings of this study along with the gap in existing knowledge have been addressed where evidence has been given of previous studies further role of this dissertation findings was informed. Organisation of this study has been informed. This section also informed the significance sustainability to justify inclusion of environmentally sustainability in this study area. Following section will review the known literature in accordance with existing plastic waste management methods and identify its environmental implications. It will also assess proposed policies, proven strategies those are originally introduced to help enhance present environmental conditions; summarisation of real life case studies and learned examples will be noted in the following section by introducing and reviewing items of previous research in the area. LiTeRATURE REVIEW This section is an attempt to achieve the objective one. The following section divided into three parts, First section addresses plastic waste management methods: landfilling, recycling, pyrolysis and incineration. Secondly, environmental indicators: climate Change, depletion of natural resources, energy demands and water consumptions that are used in the study as a benchmarking to compare each waste management method performances. Finally, provides an overview of the international strategies and policies applied in practice. Key sources used for this study are reports of Government Agencies: WRAP, DEFRA and EU and internationally United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) along with published international scientific databases and journals from Springer, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment and ScienceDirect. This represents a combination of sources including Governmental Agencies and academic authors. In addition, the webpage of the European Commission was searched for studies commissioned as input to EU policies. Plastic waste problem description: Broulidakis Martà ­nez (2012) noted that waste is not treated as worthless garbage anymore, it is instead believed as a re. Nevertheless, what is happening with the resources? Treating waste sustainably is a crucial issue. Identifying whether or not waste is been managed in a way that is betterment for environment, society and it should be economical as well. This chapter will find an answer to those questions by reviewing already known literature. It will also try to identify which one is the known environmentally sustainable method for plastic waste by reviewing published articles, studies and set of research. It was stated by Tehrani et al., in 2009 that there is no a solitary knowledge of a single technology that can resolve the waste associated issues. In order to provide a broader understanding of this issue, following section will discuss the existing plastic waste management options to gain a better understanding of the processes related to waste management and their environmental effects. 2.1 Waste management methods and their environmental impacts The following section addresses methods that are in use for the management of plastic waste include Landfill, Incineration, Pyrolysis and Recycling along with their environmental impacts are discussed now in details. 2.1.1 Landfill A landfill is a one of the waste management methods in which solid wastes are disposed in a manner that limits their encounter on the environment. According to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Landfilling is the complex system of interrelated material and sub system that act together to break down and stabilize disposed waste overtime (2004). Landfill is extremely old disposal method, but yet one of the utilized one for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Apart from taking large area of land it also generate odour, bio-aerosols, visual disturbance and lead to the release of hazardous chemicals through the leachate which is the liquid that drains or leaches from a landfill sites. Emission of greenhouse gas through landfill is due to organic breakdown of disposal of biodegradable including bio plastic waste. European Union Low informed in 2008s issue on the management of bio-waste in the EU countries that Landfill of waste usually entails non-recoverable loss of resources and land. Since landfill, sites can normally not be used after closure for scientific engineering and/or health risk reasons and in the medium to long term. This review of literature found that landfilling is not considered a sustainable waste management solution. 2.1.2 Incineration Incineration is a significant method that avoids the problem of landfilling space problems. In this method, thermal waste treatment procedure takes place where raw or unprocessed plastics waste can be utilized as feedstock. Plastic waste is combusted in different temperature according to the type of plastic and in this period plastic waste modified to carbon dioxide, water and non-combustible materials alongside solid residue state leaves incinerator bottom ash (IBA) that always has contain a small amount of carbon residual (DEFRA, 2012). Published report of the Environment Agency (2002) on the safety of incinerator ash confirms that IBA can be safely used as an aggregate in construction as it contains dioxin levels similar to those found in soils. However, friends of earth review reports argued that the government should give guidance on acceptable contamination levels in construction materials (2002). International Journal of Environment in Comparative study of municipal solid wast e treatment technologies using life cycle assessment method stated that incineration as one of the competent strategies to resolve waste association problems (Zaman, 2010) and its ability to generate heat and energy from the plastic waste. However, considering incineration of plastic waste is solely depending on whether or not energy is recovered (Weiss ,2012)along with other aspects such as quality of fuel and efficiency of energy which varies considerably depending on whether incineration plant delivers electricity, heat or both along with the used technology, for instance, higher efficiencies can be achieved in fuel gas condensation method. However, according to the EUs report (2010) on waste management, the environmental impacts of incinerating plastic waste included greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, Pilz, et al. (2010) in their report on The impact of plastics on life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Europe informed that in some circumstances, incineration of plastic waste in MSW can result in a net increase in CO2 emissions. It is certain that this process can be helpful in avoided some of the plastic waste problems, but it also has environmental impacts. 2.1.3 Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is an advanced thermal treatment. Interest in pyrolysis has heightened over the past decade, and there is considerable anticipation that this technology will prove to be viable alternatives for dealing with residual fractions municipal waste to assist in compliance with the Landfill diversion elements of the EC Landfill Directive (DEFRA, 2004). Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of waste in the absence of air to produce gas, diesel like pyrolysis oil) or solid (mainly ash, char, and carbon). Zhiru (2001) pointed out difference in pyrolysis oil and diesel and noted that diesel cannot be assumed compatible with pyrolysis fuels (p.80) and remarkably few reports related to the behaviour of materials in pyrolysis fuels are available. Findings of research by Alston and Arnold (2011) informs that pyrolysis is a strong compromise method as compared to Landfill, Recycling and Incineration with their environmental impact categories. As the gases and oil produced in pyrolysis could be used as fuel and so provides significant resource saving without high impact on climate or landfill space. Additionally, Scheirs and Kaminsky (2006) noted, the main advantage of pyrolysis is that allows process of plastic waste which is otherwise difficult to recycle. This process produces reusable products with unlimited market acceptance (p24). This book is helpful in understanding pyrolysis process. However, does not assess environmental impacts of pyrolysis, nevertheless, it has been noted that unlike incineration, there are no environmentally harmful emissions in pyrolysis process (p.598). 2.1.4 Recycling Recycling is considered as one of the classic goals in sustainable waste management system (Bohma et, al 2010). Collected waste plastic are being sent to various market ,due to growing market for recycled plastics which includes closed loop systems for PET bottles. Plastics are also exported to abroad for recycling purpose (Defra, 2012), but it is argued environmental benefits of export overshadow the impact of transportation. Environmental impacts of transportation involved in exportation are high. Recycling can prevent an enormous amount of virgin production, which leads to saving energy, depletion of raw material, reducing GHG emissions including acidification even after considering transportation. However, WRAP (2006) argued that, The accurate impacts are depending on the virgin material being replaced and life span of replaced product. PET is one of the plastics types which is collected the most for recycling (DEFRA,2011b) this type of plastic is been included in the present stu dy. Recycling protects resources embodied in waste plastic however, it is argued by many about the requirement of energy inputs for the transformation process, this lead to environmental impacts. Besides that, not all of plastic types can be recycled. The PET bottle has strong advantages in recycling, however, complex products like composites, low weight articles or those that are contaminated with other products are less favourable to recycling. 2.2 Health impacts of plastic waste recycling There is a risk involved in plastic waste recycling affecting local populations in countries with less rigorous regulations than in the EU (Mudgal 2010). Wong noted that the majority of the cases companies fail to provide appropriate facilities protecting the environment and human health (2007). Such as chipping and melting of plastics in unventilated areas that are not seen in European practice can have negative consequences on human health. One specific case study showed due to incomplete combustion of Waste Electrical, and Electronic Equipment(WEEE) from plastic materials such as PVC and plastic chips there was higher concentrations of heavy metal found in the air of the China (Guiyu region). The study showed high concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PDBEs) in the air, released from the melting of polymers that contain brominated flame-retardants. Admittedly, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of America have informed that high exposure to PDBEs, which found in the human body, has been linked to, hormone disruption, thyroid permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioural changes, hearing deficits, fatal malformations and possibly cancer (Herbstman et al., 2010). However, human toxicity issue is ignored by environmental impact studies those are based on qualitative studies and the same confirmed by Wollny and European Environmental Bureau (EEB) Brussels(2013) 2.3 Environmental Impacts Indicators The following table explains each of indicators that are included in this study; it also critically analyse policies and measures taken to prevent environmental impact. Indicator Description of Environmental Indictor Description, impact and related worldwide policies Climate Change Climate change is also addressed as globe warming. Globe warming is the rise in the average temperature of the earth surface, due to a possible rise in the greenhouse impacts, provoked by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Research published in the journal PLoS Medicine (2012) informs according to a group of European public health experts that climate change could alter patterns of food availability, physical activity and in some cases might bring direct physical harm. Friends of Earth (2007) reported that waste prevention is the most beneficial option from a climate point of view, followed by reuse and recycling; Warhorse and Watson confirm (2006) landfill and incineration are the worse options (p.6) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC, 2013) an international treaty joined by 195 countries, except America. To follow up from Kyoto protocol green house gas emission is seen as the most crucial issue within the field of climate change policies. BBC informed back in 2009 that The America accounts for almost 25% of the worlds total CO2 emission and have received a large amount of criticism for its stance on climate change. Depletion of natural resources Resource depletion described as the cutting potential of all natural resources. The resources believed in this study are mineral and fossil resources. Plastics are made from oil, coal and gas, which are limited natural resources (Australia EPA,2013).majority of plastic bags are made from polyethylene, made up of natural gas, and Plastic is not biodegradable, so all the plastic that has ever been made is stilexist around us today. Most of it is in landfills, if not then floating in the sea. University of Cambridges report on plastic recycling informed that the production of 1 kg of polyethylene (PET or LDPE), requires the equivalent of 2 kg of oil for energy and raw material. Although plastics only consume around 4% of the worlds oil, supplies are becoming depleted. Once depleted these resources cannot be replaced. The depletion of natural resources is becoming a key focus(Karen,2008) This is evident in the UNs Agenda 21 Section 2 which provides the necessary steps to be taken by all countries to sustain their natural resources (2002) Schilling chiang confirms the depletion of natural resources is a sustainable development issue (2011).furthermore, Salvati and Marco (2008) noted in regards to natural resources, depletion is of concern for sustainability as it poses the ability to degrade current environments(p.218) and potential to impact the needs of future generations(p.523) Energy demand Primary energy is obtainable raw energy in nature and is separated into renewable and nonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  renewable primary energies. The non renewable are: atomic energy, usual gas, coal, and oil, Renewable is wind energy, solar, biomass and hydraulic. UK department of Energy and Climate Change (2012) informed that the UK has developed Pathways analysis and calculator tool which will help policy makers. Gervet (2007) in his captivating report on the use of crude oil in plastic making contributing to the global warming pointed out that energy consumption in total worldwide plastic production from 1939 till 2004 is 0.59 10 14 kWh (p.5). Plastics Europe informed in order to produce plastic products, energy resources are consumed(2013). Currently energy resources are majorly obtained from non-renewable sources, and when used; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are produced. Nevertheless, it was established in a study undertaken by GUA/denkstatt in 2004/2005 even more energy would be consumed along with more GHG emission, if plastic products were to be substituted by alternative materials. [Pilz et al., 2005]. Water consumption Water consumption symbolizes to the removal of water from the various origins (rivers, seas, and groundwater) for use by humans. This water is not returned to the origins and sources. According to the UN World Development Report, up to 500 Million Tons of wastes accumulate each year from Industry; most of it goes into the fresh water supply. Also informed some of the developing countries dump 70 % of industrial waste into untreated waters where drinking water gets polluted (2013). Professor Grossman noted back in 2004 that Industrial water use is about 22 %. According to Centre for Science and environment- India, countries all over the world set standards and target for water consumption for industries. China, For instance government push companies to save as much as 6 billion cubic meters of water per year informed in China water conservation Agency report in 2005. Proposed and implemented governmental strategies and policies targeting plastic waste will be discussed in details in the following part of this chapter. 2.4 Policies on plastic waste Plastic waste management goes across a numerous policy fields: along with sustainable management of resources and habitat protection, climate change, agriculture, soil protection and energy, biodiversity. Purpose of this section is to provide an overview of measures taken by Government agencies and environmental protection bodies to reduce the environmental impacts of plastic waste.According to Science for environmental policies ,European commission, (2011) Municipal waste collection and separation is a vital part in all waste management methods, for countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden where waste management systems are more advanced, and source separated collection rates are already high(Waste Management World, 2013 b).waste management world (2013) reported European Union as the most advanced waste management system. The European exports of plastic waste rose by 250%, reaching 2.27 million tonnes approximately 5 million tonnes are annually recycled in Europe. Some selected counters, policies and measures related to the waste management are discussed in following table Country and Government Agency Introduced, Implemented Policies, Legislation and measures Netherlands Dutch Waste Management Association (DWMA) The Netherland recycle no less than 64% of its waste and the remainder are incinerated with generation of electricity, and a small percentage ends up in landfill. This is a country that is practically unique when consider recycling. Separating waste is the popular environmental measure activity among Dutch people that account for more than 90% of Dutch people involved in this sort of activities. Source: United State of America National Solid Wastes Management Association (NSWMA) According to a recent study by NSMWA Privatised, waste services signifies cost savings and lower financial risks for municipalities than public sector counterparts d Experiment of using fly ash(recycling toxic)as an additive to produce light weight composite that can be used in the automotive industry is taking place in the New York university. The university researchers claim that it has the potential to keep tons of toxic waste out of landfills while lowering the cost of some of the expensive raw materials. Source: Qatar Ministry of Environment(MOE) An integrated solid waste treatment in the Qatar, that is the first of its kind in the Middle East. This facility centre has a capacity of treating 2300 tonnes of solid waste per day, along with 5000 tonnes of CD waste. Source: United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) UK is home to the worlds largest plastics recycling plant. The  £15 million venture by Coca-Cola, WRAP and ethical plastic bottle recycle, ECO Plastics is going to be the worlds largest plastics reprocessing facility. The plant will save about 33, 5000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per Annum that is the equivalent of taking 15,715 cars off the road. Source: Taiwan EPA Taiwan is planning to excavate about 400 landfills for energy and material recovery, additionally, add bio-energy capacity to its incineration facilities. Environmental Protection administration (EPA)Taiwan Source: Australia Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities Stewardship Bill have been introduced by the Australian government and of the aim of helping to manage the environmental, and human health. This will demand manufacturers and importers of computers, and TVs to fund and implement national collection and recycling of these products. Source: Example of failure of advanced waste management systems:The increasingly recognized problem of plastic floati

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Passion :: essays research papers

I give in. My passion for writing is growing larger and larger each day, it has become the only thing I think about on a daily basis. It’s turning into a nuisance! I curse it to the back of my head every time it comes to fore thought. It twists my guts into an almost wrenching pain when I don’t have the chance to write something down on a piece of paper and make it my own. It forces the air from my chest as if I were a cartoon character with an anvil flattened. Where did I get this from, you ask? Let me tell you a story that explains my passion. Sit back, and enjoy the ride. Soar through the sky with dragons, their hot breath on your neck as you hit the ground tumbling. The blistering win cracking your skin from the powerful wings that beat wildly to land with such easy and natural grace. Before your able to catch your breath, after witnessing the beautiful landing, you hear the cries of shock and pain as an arrogant man has mortally wounded one of your lizard brethren. Azhrei, ‘dragon prince,’ is what they called him because of the enhanced cunningness and intellect he used to destroy the life of this beloved beast. Dragon Prince by Melanie Rawn comes in nine books, and explains the attachments of fantasy and fiction to romance and war. The beginning of my intrigue to this novel was the end, I had rather impulsively, skipped to the end. As I returned to the beginning, I was enthralled to see the turn of events further down the story line and eager to read through completely. While reading, I was becoming intimately attached to the characters; I was one of them. I felt the mind-blowing pain of the crop whip across Rohans shoulders as he fled down a racetrack more for his life then the prize. The seething jealousy Sioned felt in her heart over Rohan’s flirtatious ways with the High Prince’s daughter to be able to barter for the things his people demanded of him from his overlord’s lands. Sioned and Rohan, the secretly betrothed main characters, remain engraved into my heart till the end of time. The connections I felt to these characters inevitably caused me to give advice and make them apart of my life. â€Å"What the Goddess proclaims is not written in stone, but when it is the stone can be shattered,† Lady Andrade, Rohan’s aunt and Sioned’s tutor, told Sioned about her deepening and frightening love for Rohan.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Supernatural in Shakespeares Macbeth :: GCSE English Literature Coursework

The Supernatural in Macbeth Displays of supernatural activities were used throughout Macbeth, and evidence of this was brought out in the appearances of the three Witches. In Shakespeare's day, special effects were not used in his plays. Therefore, the dramatic performances and the suspenseful scenes were the fundamental qualities to making a great play. Shakespeare used the element of the unknown to evoke fear in the minds of his audience. By allowing the Witches to see into the future, it made Macbeth more suspenseful. With their prophecies about Macbeth?s future, they intrigue the audience to see if they are correct. The Witches were a symbol of evil, and Shakespeare uses this fear of the devil to give his plays an additional eerie and haunting effect. Shakespeare also used an evil character that can easily influence the main character in his stories, in this case, it was Lady Macbeth. It is essential that   Lady Macbeth and the three Witches create the plot of Macbeth. Without the Witches powers of forete lling the future and the evil persuasions of his wife, Lady Macbeth, Macbeth would have never become king.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The expression "weird sisters", used from the 1400's, means "Fatal sisters". The word "weird" or in Old English Wyrd was a noun meaning Fate. In Act 1, Scene 3, The three Witches describe themselves as fore-tellers of   destiny, and they all introduce themselves to Macbeth and Banquo as "The weird sisters, hand in hand". The appearance that the three Witches possess is that of pure evil. In the starting of the scene, each of the three Witches describe their wickedness with a proud manner. For example, when they asked the Second Witch where she had been, she replied, "Killing swine". This statement shows how the Witches enjoyed being devilish. The impression that the audience gets of Witches is that they are hideously evil. In Shakespeare's time, witches were believed to have supernatural powers, they could transform themselves into other shapes, usually animals. When the First Witch describes where she had been, she referred to sailing across the sea in a sieve and tra nsforming into a rat without a tail, But in a sieve I'll thither sail, and like a rat without a tail, I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do?. Witches were also believed to   fortunetellers. The three Witches prophecies in Macbeth, foreshadow later events in the play.

Essay --

According to Yount, the church should have evaluations â€Å"in order to make sure what God called one to do, is in fact getting done† (449). Evaluation is a word that many people are acquainted with, and although it is a familiar word, it seems to take on a different meaning in various settings, for example, in business, schools, trades, and particularly in the church. There are a lot of evaluation practices in existence within our culture which do not translate as easily when it comes to the life of the congregation, and that’s a good thing because, they should not, in fact, there need to be a means to sort them out, for example, when business practices are imported in the process of evaluation, the impact can be a negative one, although the congregation can benefit and learn from those members who possess valuable experiences in both business and the working world. The whole world belongs solely to God and he allows our Reformed theological tradition to be open to the vast knowledge and experiences that are gained from various settings in which Christians interact with the world. Ye...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Of Mice and Men & Death of a Salesman by John Steinbeck Essay

John Steinbeck was born in California, Salinas February 1902. In spite of the fact Steinbeck came from a wealthy background he also showed curiousness toward the farm workers and spent his own time working with them. The experience he had gained from working with the farm laborers was then applied as matter for his writing. This certainly adds a sense of realism to his texts. Steinbeck produced numerous novels about poverty-stricken people who have a dream. One of the novels is the well-known ‘Grapes of the Wrath.’ During the late 1920s the Wall Street crash took place, forcing millions of Americans out of work; this then led on to the Great Depression, an era in which people lacked any economic opportunity. The main cultural trends that occurred throughout this period of time were poverty and unemployment. The characters in the novella, â€Å"Of Mice and Men† can relate to this trend as it is set during that era. All the characters in the book are experiencing poverty at the time and are working to continue existence and to vanquish the Great Depression, so that they can obtain the dream. It is shown here – â€Å"Look, if me an’ Lennie work a month an’ don’t spen nothing, we’ll have a hunderd bucks. That’d be four fifty. I bet we could swing her for that.† The American Dream is striving for freedom, status, and success, and as this quote suggests it is often bound up with issues of a financial nature. The American Dream associates with all characters in, â€Å"Of Mice and Men† but mainly with Candy, Crooks, Lennie, George and Curley’s wife, who at one point says, â€Å"He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural.† Quotes such as this remind us of the unwavering confidence that American citi zens had in their version of the American Dream, and they often read ironically. This is because, as  readers, we know that the character is disillusioned, and falling for the false promise of prosperity. Racism is posed throughout the novella; in the 1990s segregation laws were approved, whereby the rights of black and white people were divided; black people generally had the things lacking in quality, i.e. Crooks’ inhumane segregation on the ranch. Habitual use of racism, for example flippant use of the word ‘N****r’ are prevalent in this novella. There were also groups of people who were explicity posed against blacks, for example the KKK, who presented violence towards the black minorities, by ambushing them and/or lynching them. They would also strike  any person who dared to associate with blacks. This may stand to elaborate why nobody socializes with Crooks – they’re frightened to step outside of social parameters. For example we learn that, ‘Candy stops at the door and takes a step back.’ The fact that Crooks is black demolishes the possibilities of his dreams actually being accomplished; they are not assigned the same rights, and In turn dreams as the white people. This is ironic because we know that Crooks used to ‘live the dream’, and live amongst â€Å"the white kids;† perhaps this is Steinbeck making a comment on how society has regressed for the worse. The tone Steinbeck creates is mellow and calm especially in the opening paragraph. I know this because Steinbeck uses words such as â€Å"twinkling† and â€Å"golden foothill slopes curve. † creating a dream-like atmosphere. Both these quotes represent colours that indicate summertime, a long season whereby people and animals revel in the tranquillity of the outdoors. In addition to this Steinbeck says that the, â€Å"foothill slopes curve† this gives the impression the walk is effortless trip. However, this calmness is instantly interrupted and starts to show rupture as the George and Lennie near. This may be Steinbeck commenting on how the futile nature of dreaming will always become apparent. Steinbeck states that the two men â€Å"hurried† and â€Å"pounded†Ã‚  down the river; both these verbs are starting to stipulate the start of a battle. By the writer creating such a subtle scene, which is then ruined, could represent the fact that people whose lives come across cheerful and composed, also have holster sadness. I feel that Steinbeck wanted the audience to know that ‘the best laid plans’ didn’t have the outcome that was anticipated; in fact the dream of ‘livin off the fatta the lan’ near enough every time fails, results in relationships vanishing and lives wrecked. Lennie is very broad and heavy handed. On the other hand George is small, so it is also ironic that Lennie’s surname is small. The text readers, â€Å"Behind him walked his opposite, a huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws. His arms did not swing at his sides, but hung loosely.† The writer says that George has â€Å"restless eyes†Ã‚  meaning that his eyes are defined, whereas Lenni e’s are described as â€Å"pale.† This colour is not vivid nor is it harsh, so it is almost sympathetic and tender. Lennie’s eyes do not suggest strength, so maybe Steinbeck is presenting Lennie as having a monotonous, good-natured personality. Steinbeck is not trying to make George and Lennie seem alike, but completely different; this is to show how dependent two opposites are in needing each other. Without one another George would have been a lonely ranch worker, meanwhile Lennie would of probably contained in a mental institution. Lennie is referred to a bear, straight away this tells the audience that Lennie is physically strong, pretty large and hostile. Despite this, it also shows that Lennie would only fight when he has to, he wouldn’t do it without an intention. Research has shown that bears only attack when they feel in danger, therefore a bear symbolizes Lennie best as he tend to lose control a lot. Lennie is always willing to attack when the dream is compromised, showing how important the vision was to American  citizens. Lennie says, â€Å"I remember about the rabbits, George.† and George responds, †¨Ã¢â‚¬ ¨Ã¢â‚¬ The hell with the rabbits. That’s all you can ever remember is them rabbits.† This is the very first time we hear about Lennie dream. Even from the beginning of the novella, the impression is given that Lennie is more enthusiastic than George about the dream. George’s simple eradication of the words â€Å"them rabbits† shows signs that he thinks the whole situation is foolish. This tends to get intricate as we to register that George might just be as animated for the dream as much as Lennie. it comes across that George is extra wary about that excitement, this makes sense as he’s also more aware of his surroundings compared to his other half. The American Dream as whole is impossible of fulfilment, the death of Lennie is figurative of that – concluding that all good things most come to an end. Lennie only wanted to â€Å"tend the rabbits,† nothing more, nothing less – it was George who came up with the entire dream therefore Lennie is not to blame for everything. The dream was presented to Lennie like a story, in a childlike manner. â€Å"†¦God a’mighty, if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job an’ work, an’ no trouble. No mess at all, and when the end of the month come I could take my fifty bucks and  go into town and get whatever I want†¦Ã¢â‚¬  At this point George lashes out at Lennie raging about what the life of a migrant worker would be like without any heavy loads i.e Lennie. From this piece of text it seems that George is imagining a nonchalant existence and that Lennie is just an obstacle in his way.What George had highlighted here is far-seeing because of what happens in the end of â€Å"Of Mice and Men.† George uses the dream so that they both have hope later on life, after  the ranch workers knew about their dream they wanted to have one too. This reveals the value of dreams entirely in the novella, and for those alive during the Great Depression, sitting in the same position as the ranch workers. Once George creates a full account of the farm, its heaven garden-like qualities become even more obvious; Everything thing they want will be in front of their eyes, without any literal effort. Just as Lennie states: â€Å"We could live offa the fatta the lan’.† I think that when George shot Lennie he was right in doing so. One of the reasons I think this is due to the fact that he would have been killed by Curley or the rest of the ranch men anyway. Lennie had unexpectedly killed Curley’s wife; therefore, it would of resolved in death either way. The author lets the reader know that Curley would of killed Lennie when Curley says – â€Å"I’m gonna get him. I’m going for my shot gun. I’ll kill the son-of-a-bitch myself.† If Curley killed Lennie, it would of resolved in a slow painful, death. In my opinion, it was better his best friend killing him than his enemy. This killing can be compared to a mercy killing or linked to euthanasia in many ways. George killed Lennie for all the right reasons; the only downfall in this is that George has to go on and live a lonely life, with no companionship. George kills Lennie by Salinas River ‘Salinas’ means lonely, which is what George is now. George and Lennie fail to register that their dream is like thousands of other ranch workers, Crooks summarizes their dream when he quotes: â€Å"Seen hundreds of men come by on the road an’ on the ranches, with their bindles on their back an’ that same damn thing in their heads. Hundreds of them. They come an’ they quit an’ go on, every damn one of ‘em’s got a little piece of land in his head. An’ never one of them get it.† The men on the ranch have this futile dream about owning their peace of land, but its unachievable because of their circumstances. In a similar manner, from beginning to end Miller depicts the American Dream and how Willy Lowman and his family fail to achieve it. Arthur Miller was born in New York, Harlem October 1915. Miller wrote Death of a Salesman whilst working for his father’s company at the age of seventeen. Miller had said that everything he wrote was based on someone he knew or had seen. After Miller wrote the script he wrote a postscript saying that the real-life salesman, who the play is based on had killed himself by jumping in front of a subway train. Willy has been attempting to achieve the American Dream for such a long period of time that he actually believes it’s achievable. Throughout Willy’s life he has prolonged numerous lies to himself and to his family, this has persuaded him that his dream has become an possibility. He constantly reveals to his family that he’s on the verge of huge success, meanwhile he contemplates to himself as to why he hasn’t reached the dream he knows he is capable of – Willy says that â€Å"There’s more people! That’s what’s ruining this country! The competition is maddening! Smell the stink from that apartment house! And one on the other side†¦ How can they whip cheese?† Willy says this in Act one, this quote suggests that Willy is blaming the over populated country, America, on his lack of success – the truth is that its down to his belief in the assumption of the flawed American Dream. Its seems to me that Willy is just trying to come up with excuses, to cover the fact that he, himself, failed at the American Dream. The fact that Willy is always in need of a scapegoat , shows us that the dream Is, by nature, completely unachievable. The use of explanation marks in this quote express Willy’s feelings about the people and the impact its having on his ability to achieve the American dream. Miller makes an abstract comment on how America is guilty of selling their citizens a dream to failure, but who do we blame? On one hand we should blame the scapegoat, America as a nation, but it seems the  readers can’t help but blame Willy, it’s almost as if the readers have fallen for the same myth – blaming Willy and not American society. Willy convinced his sons that in order to achieve the American Dream you need to be â€Å"well-liked†, not just liked. It seems that Willy is implying that being admired and the quality of arousing interest is the most important thing that will enable you to achieve the American Dream. He puts being â€Å"well liked† first over any other quality. According to Willy, being well liked amounts to the bare matter for reaching the American Dream. Being well liked is a quickened way of achieving something without as much hard work. In act one Willy says to Happy that he’ll be â€Å"Bigger than Uncle Charley! Because Charley is not liked. He’s liked – but not well liked.† The exclamation mark is to emphasise the fact the he’s going to be bigger than Charley, Charley is prestige and has status. The dash creates the effect of a dramatic pause to make it clear that Charley was not well liked, but at the same time Willy is implying that he, himself, is well liked, when evidently we know this is just a delusion. Willy completely thinks that anyone who works hard in America will become successful without doubt. He says, â€Å"Biff Loman is lost. In the greatest country in the world a young man with such- personal attractiveness gets lost. And such a hard worker. There’s one thing about Biff – he’s not lazy.† This is another encapsulation of the American Dream fooling the American man, it’s evident that it’s futile and ends up killing Willy. It’s almost like Willy sees the American dream as a given right of an American, Willy’s death is such a horrendous one, as he commits suicide and so this serves to show us how destructive the American dream can be for the average American man. In act one, Willy indicates that Biff can even get let off with purloining a ball because of how popular he is with his coach. This supports the  notion that Willy places upmost importance on being â€Å"well liked† In Act One Willy says to his sons â€Å"Tell you a secret, boys. Don’t breathe it to a soul. Someday I’ll have my own business, and I’ll never have to leave home anymore† Here Willy is secretive and possessive, just like in of Mice and Men when George let Candy participate in their dream. Willy wants to own a  business just like George and Lennie, although Willy’s dream and George and Lennie’s dreams are completely different, they are similar at the same time, as they both are striving to achieve financial independence, they both have this unwavering image of a dream which they believe to be achievable, but the irony is the reader sees this as unachievable. The difference in these dreams is evident through what is they want to achieve; George and Lennie aims for and simple, agricultural success, whereas Willy is positioned in a contemporary situation in which he seeks to corporate success and material gain. Here it’s worth realizing Biff and Happy endeavour to achieve and reality which is more similar to George and Lennie in terms of its simplicity, however his father’s obsession with corporate wealth means that this is not possible. The above can be seen when Happy says, â€Å"That’s what I dream about Biff. Sometimes I wanna just rip my clothes off in the middle of the store and outbox that goddamned merchandise manager. I mean I can outbox, outlift and outrun anybody in that store, and I to take orders from those petty, common sons of bitches till I can’t stand it anymore.† Here we see Happy rejecting his father’s wishes to follow a corporate lead American dream, in favour of a more primal like competition. However he releases the idea that business competition, similar to the type his father promotes will bring him success; he can’t escape the rat race of American capitalism. This is similar to the inescapable, futile situation that Lennie and George find themselves in; they move from ranch to ranch, with seeming direction, but the irony lies in the fact  that their life is totally directionless. The final bitter blow lies in Lennie’s death. Although culturally, the direction toward which the pursuers of the American Dream changes over time (from dreams of living simply via agriculture, to dreams of achieving corporate success) it is interesting to see that Willy says to his wife, â€Å"You wait, kid, before it’s all over we’re gonna get a little place out in the country, and I’ll raise some vegetables, a couple of chickens†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This suggests that the direction of the American Dream has not  changed much, and material/corporate success only serves as a temporary means to fulfil the original view of owning one’s own ranch and living from the land. Here, Willy’s vision is almost identical to George and Lennie’s, which is interesting due to the difference era both are set in/written in. The ellipsis in this quote represents the never ending possibilities of what they can acquire. This aforementioned idea of Willy obsessed with being well liked is something he unfortunately passes down to his children in a typical cyclical way. In a conversation with his parents Biff and Happy reveal they are interested they are looking for work that is simply bearable. Happy says, about his â€Å"business idea† that, â€Å"†¦it wouldn’t be like a business. We’d be out playin’ ball again†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Despite this, Willy is completely fixated on ensuring that the boys possess job security in a lucrative profession, which he believes will lead them on this path to greatness, and most importantly, financial security. We may accuse Willy of not being very supportive of his children, as he seems to be prioritising pursuit of the American Dream over his children. This is a true reflection of his blind faith in the idealised dream. Linda’s attitude toward the American dream is contradictive. Linda does this by motivating Willy into believing his dreams are real, even though she recognizes his dream is conclusively futile and bound to stay  incomplete. Linda doesn’t have as many dreams as Willy, but her main one is to live a undemanding, quiet life with her husband. Whereas he would prefer to travel, be recognized and remembered by everybody. Linda would prefer to sit back in her aging jacket with him and to have him employed in the city. This is illustrated when Linda says to Willy ‘can’t continue this way’, and encourages Willy to put himself forward and ask Howard for a job, so that he does not have to travel and so he can pay for the insurance premium. At this stage the audience gather that Linda is very concerned for Willy. Linda never manages to attain her dream since Willy would be more willingly to commit suicide than to surrender his job as a salesman. In addition to this, Linda yearns to safeguard Willy. A case of this is whilst speaking to Ben  she shouts at Ben and says, ‘don’t say those things to him! ‘Afterwards, it is clear that she is shielding him; even though the stage directions interpret Linda as being ‘frightened of Ben’, she becomes assertive for Willy’s benefit. She fails to shade Willy as he objects, resulting in the worst case scenario whilst under her belt. Willy committing suicide. As the play concludes, it’s evident that Willy was lost and didn’t actually know himself. We already knew this, the point being hardly anyone attends his funeral. It is here Biff registers that his dad was lost, entirely and travelled down the wrong road, we know this as he says â€Å"He had the wrong dreams. All, all wrong.† It is obvious the Biff will no longer follow the same route as his father. However, Happy, decides to secure his father’s ill-advised visions and takes them on-board himself, he says so himself toward the end of the play â€Å"I’m gonna win it for him.† Comparison of â€Å"Death of a Salesman† and â€Å"Of Mice and Men† The novella ‘Of Mice and Men’ and the play ‘The Death of a Salesman’ paint a picture of the vanity of dreams, the main one is the American dream. Both authors, Arthur Miller and John Steinbeck use numerous linguistic and literary methods, so that the audience can see how impossible dreams were during that era. Of Mice and Men and Death of a Salesman are set during the 1930s-1940s, the writers permit the context of the literature in order to help them tour the futility of the ‘American Dream’. The American Dream is never achieved. The working-class people -Willy Loman in Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman, ends up disenchanted and kills himself. The Lomans are alike Lennie and George, They both try to repudiate that they’re just a minority in the world they’re living in, but their American dream is invariably just a step away. At one point, in Of Mice and Men and Death of a Salesman they contrast as Willy wants to be successful and â€Å"well liked† in order to gain status, whereas Lennie and George don’t want status they want to own a piece of land and belong somewhere, I know this as George says ‘it’d be our own, an ‘nobody could can us’. Willy is lost in this delusion about being successful and gaining status that he would rather die than be known to failure of the American dream. When Willy and Ben are speaking Linda yells at him saying, ‘don’t say those things to him!’ Here it is clear the Linda is shielding Willy. The way Linda presented herself to Ben is almost identical to the way Lennie reacts when its things resulting with George. For example, When Crooks expressed the possibility of George being injured, Lennie ‘walked dangerously towards’ him, questioning ‘who hurt George?’ The word ‘dangerously’ is used to narrate Lennie’s negative, forceful charge  toward crooks, this shows how far Lennie will go, having the only intention of making sure George is safe and not thinking about the outcome when doing so. Likewise, when Ben indicates Willy isn’t doing so well at work Linda reacts in a menacing manner toward him. In the stage directions Miller says how Happy was ‘almost ready to fight Biff’ As we know, Happy’s dreams are what his father’s are and when Biff decides to ask what applicability Willy’s dreams are it results in a battle nearly commencing. The reason being as to why Happy was ready to challenge Biff is because as stated above (Happy’s dreams are his fathers). What happened here is similar to what occurred with Lennie and Crooks. In my opinion Steinbeck and Miller, both display how the characters will assert one’s over another in an arrogant way, to make the audience grasp mentally, that no matter how much you try to protect your dream it will always be captured.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Bal Gangadhar Tilak Essay

Born in a well-cultured Brahim family on July 23, 1856 in Ratangari, Maharashtra, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a multifacet personality. He is considered to be the ‘Father of Indian Unrest’. He was a scholar of Indian history, Sanskrit, mathematics, astronomy and Hinduism. He had imbibed values, cultures and intelligence from his father Gangadhar Ramchandra Tilak who was a Sanskrit scholar and a famous teacher. At the age of 10, Bal Gangadhar went to Pune with his family as his father was transferred. In Pune, he was educated in an Anglo-Vernacular school. After some years he lost his mother and at the age of 16 his father too he got married to a 10-year-old girl named Satyabhama while he was studying in Matriculation. In 1877, Tilak completed his studies and continued with studying Law. With an aim to impart teachings about Indian culture and national ideals to India’s youth, Tilak along with Agarkar and Vishnushstry founded the ‘Deccan Education Society’. Soon after that Tilak started two weeklies, ‘Kesari’ and ‘Marathi’ to highlight plight of Indians. He also started the celebrations of Ganapati Festival and Shivaji Jayanti to bring people close together and join the nationalist movement against British. In fighting for people’s cause, twice he was sentenced to imprisonment. He launched Swadeshi Movenment and believed that ‘Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it’. This quote inspired millions of Indians to join the freedom struggle. With the goal of Swaraj, he also built ‘Home Rule League’. Tilak constantly traveled across the country to inspire and convince people to believe in Swaraj and fight for freedom. He was constantly fighting against injustice and one sad day on August 1, 1920, he died. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the prime architects of modern India and is still living in the hearts of millions of India. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a man of an indomitable energy and a new vision, was born in Maharashtra in 1856, of the caste of Chitpavan Brahmins, who had ruled over Shivaji’s empire. He was born thirty-eight years after the final British conquest of Maratha power. He was a scholar of the first rank, educator, journalist and first among the leaders of new India. Tilak learned of the values of Bharatdharma as a child in his home at Ratnagiri. His father was an educator and he carefully tutored the boy in Sanskrit and Mathematics, and his mother helped to mould his firm character and to teach him the values of his classical heritage. From both parents he learned a healthy veneration for spiritual values, and he learned that he shared the history of the Marathas, that he was heir to a glorious martial tradition. His religious or spiritual orientation, the product of his family’s devoutness, was apparent in his later writings, as when he wrote, ‘The greatest virtue of man is to be filled with wonder and devotion by anything in the animate and inanimate creation that suggests inherent divinity.1 He also made continuous reference to the great Shivaji and the history of his Maratha people, the fiery tradition of their independence, their war against the Mogul Empire to restore Swaraj and to save the Dharma. The Maratha people had not forgotten that they had been free, that Swaraj had been their birth-right. From his childhood, he inherited a vision of a new India arising, firmly based on the spirit and traditions of her civilization and her past. Tilak had an English education, but he was far less denationalised than most students of his generation, for he specialized in Mathematics and Sanskrit, and, if anything, his education brought him closer to the sources of his heritage. When he studied law, he concentrated on classical Indian Law, reading nearly all the great books of law and legal commentaries in Sanskrit. His study of Sanskrit was a life-long occupation and he was recognised as one of India’s leading Sanskrit scholars. Relying upon his knowledge of this ancient language and his mathematical training, he wrote Orion, Studies in the Antiquity of the Vedas, in which he explored the thesis that the Rig Veda was composed as early as 4500 B. C., basing his evidence on astronomical calculations from the Sanskrit texts. This work  gained him recognition in the Western world for his scholarship in Oriental studies. His second great book was again on the Vedas, The Arctic Home of the Vedas, in which, relying upon astronomical and geological data, he argued that the Aryans probably originally lived in the far northern reaches of the Asiatic continent. This book is credited as being one of the most original and unusual works in Sanskrit scholarship. The Vedic Chronology was a posthumously published volume of his notes and further researches. His greatest work was the Gita-Rahasya, a philosophical inquiry into the secret of the teaching of the Gita, the holiest book of Aryadharma. In this volume he reinterpreted the Gita in its classical sense, restoring the proper emphasis to the philosophy of action, Karma-Yoga, and his is considered one of the outstanding studies of the Gita in modern Indian literature. The Gita-Rahasya assured Tilak’s place among the greatest of India’s scholars and philosophers. His classical studies enabled him to recapture the spirit of India’s classical philosophy of life. In his heart of hearts he always remained a humble student of India’s greatness. Even after he had become the foremost political leader of India, he often said that he wished he could devote his life to teaching Mathematics, and pursuing his scholarly researches into the wisdom of India’s ancient civilization. Soon after the completion of his university education, Tilak embarked upon his mission in life. As he was deeply interested in education and public service from his young age, he resolved to dedicate his life to the cause of reorientation of Indian education and drastic social and political reforms. In these ventures he was joined by his best friends, G. G. Agarkar and Chiplunkar. All of them wanted, as N. C. Kelkar has written, ‘the nation to know itself and its past glories, so that it may have†¦.confidence in its own strength, and capacity to adapt itself wisely and well to the new surroundings, without losing its individuality’. 2 Hence, Tilak, assisted by his friends, started the New English School in 1880. The institution was such an immediate success that they founded the Deccan Education Society in Poona, and the next year started the famous Fergusson College. Simultaneously, they began editing and publishing two newspapers, the Kesari, a Marathi-language Weekly, and The Mahratta, its English-language counterpart. All these young men dedicated themselves, their lives and their  fortunes to popular education through their schools and through their newspapers. But soon a sharp difference arose between Tilak and his friends over the question of social reform. As a result, Tilak could not remain for long associated with the Deccan Education Society, and he, ultimately parted with his co-workers. It was finally decided at the end of 1890 that Tilak should purchase the Kesari and The Mahratta and devote himself to journalism, while Agarkar and other social workers would have a free hand in the Deccan Education Society. As an editor, Tilak was unsurpassed. The Kesari and The Mahratta, under his guidance, were always tremendously influential and came to be financially successful. His sincerity and unflinching sense of dedication led him to champion the causes of his people against any and all who would be unjust, autocratic or opportunistic. As editor of the Kesari, Tilak became the awakener of India, the Lion of Maharashtra, the most influential Indian newspaper editor of his day. It was as editor that Tilak began his three great battles–against the Westernizing social reformers, against the inert spirit of orthodoxy, and against the British Raj. It was as editor that he became a leader of the new forces in the Indian National Congress and the Indian nation. Tilak’s first reaction was to the Western civilization’s system of values. He rejected the ideology of those intellectuals who based their programme of social and political action almost entirely on the philosophy of life of nineteenth century Europe. These intellectuals were truly more the products of Western civilization than Indian. Tilak, unlike them, was not prepared to reject India’s own philosophy of life in order to imitate the philosophy of the British. He recognised that the social order in India needed a drastic reform, but instead of judging Indian social practices by the standards of the West, he interpreted them and looked for their reform from Indian standards. Aurobindo Ghose exemplified this new approach in writing, ‘Change of forms there may and will be, but the novel formation must be a new self-expression, a self-creation developed from within; it must be  characteristic of the spirit and not servilely borrowed from the embodiments of an alien nature’. 3 Tilak knew that there must be change, but also he knew that a philosophy must guide the remaking of India, and that the crucial question for India’s future was whether that guide, that philosophy, would be Western or Indian in inspiration, He wrote, ‘It is difficult to see the way in darkness without light or in a thick jungle without a guide’. And he rejected the rationalism and scepticism of Western philosophy, when he remarked that ‘mere common sense without faith in religion is of no avail in searching for the truth’. In the era of the religious and philosophical renaissance of Bharatdharma, Tilak sought the guidance of India’s own philosophy. Undoubtedly, his initial motive was not to rediscover a theory of social and political action but rather to find a satisfying personal philosophy of life. In his private life, he attempted to rediscover and reapply the Indian philosophy of life. And his achievements in private and public life gave h im a basis for building up a new theory of political action, obligation and ordering. His first task was to look behind the atrophied forms of religious orthodoxy and custom, to find the values that had built the Indian civilization. Tilak recognised that ‘the edifice of Hindu religion was not based on a fragile ground like custom. Had it been so, it would have been levelled to the ground very long ago. It has lasted so long because it is founded on everlasting Truth, and eternal and pure doctrines relating to the Supreme Being’. 4 This truth was not recognised by the Westernized intellectuals, in their obsession with the remaking of India according to their own image. But, on the contrary, Tilak started with a faith in the spiritual purpose of human life, which the ancient Indian philosophy taught. And he regarded spiritual good as the basis of social good. He wrote: ‘The structure of faith collapses with and the collapse of faith in the existence of the soul. The doctrine of soul-lessness removed the need for faith. But when faith thus ceased to be an organic force binding society together, society was bound to be disrupted and individuals living in a community were sure to find their own different paths to happiness. The ties which bind society in one harmonious organization would be snapped, and no other binding principle would take their place. Moral ties would loosen, and people would fall from  good moral standards.5 His personal life was based on this ‘structure of faith’ and the moral purposefulness provided by this foundation remained with him throughout his life. No creed that doubted the existence of the soul or the spiritual purpose of human life could inspire Tilak or his people; thus the rediscovery of faith as the ‘organic binding force’ was the first principle in his emerging philosophy. From the idea of spiritual rediscovery Tilak, like Aurobindo Ghose and others, developed a personal philosophy of life, firmly based on the knowledge that ‘the individual and the Supreme Soul are one’, and that the ‘ultimate goal of the soul is liberation’. He explored the wisdom of the Real and the relative worlds, the meaning of creation, and the moral working out of the cosmic evolution towards liberation. From this foundation he understood the purpose of life, to live in accord with dharma, the integrating principle of the cosmic order. As Aurobindo Ghose wrote of the Indian philosophy of life, ‘The idea of dharma is, next to the idea of the Infinite, its major chord; dharma, next to spirit, is its foundation of life’. 6 Once these principles were accepted, Western rationalism and scepticism, materialism and utilitarianism could hold little appeal. It was from this basic understanding that he began his criticism of the Westernizers who would destroy this wisdom and these values. It taught them to love and respect, not the forms of atrophied orthodoxy, but rather the spirit of the total Indian philosophy, the way of life and wisdom of life of the Indian civilization. India’s civilization and her history provided Tilak the new insight for his theory of social and political action. He felt that there was no reason for India to feel ashamed of her civilization when campared with the West. On the contrary, India should feel great pride. Indian values were different from but not inferior to Western values. The Westernized intellectuals, who abhorred India’s value system and who wanted to change and remake India in an alien faith, were quite wrong, for as Tilak reminded them, ‘How can a man be proud of the greatness of his own nation if he feels no pride in his own religion?’ It was Bharatdharma that provided an understanding of the moral purposefulness of the universe, which is the necessary basis of a philosophy  of life, and it provided them with a guide to concrete action in personal, social and political matters. It was with this perspective and this inspiration that Tilak and other genuine nationalists began their battles for the creation of a new India. Relying on a realistic appraisal of the world as Tilak found it, he set about not to remake India in the image of an alien system of values, but to recreate India on the foundations of her own greatness. From an Indian philosophy of life he began to construct an Indian philosophy of social reform and of politics that was to become the political theory of the Indian Independence Movement. Tilak believed in Aryadharma, but he was never a blind follower of orthodoxy. He did not ignore the obvious evils of the atrophied social system which were repellent to the social reformers and instigated them to take action. But he became the foremost of those in India who opposed the extremist measures of these social reformers. But the very fact that he was educated and that he refrained from joining the reformers indicted him as a defender of orthodoxy in the eyes of the extremists. He was condemned by the extremists as a reactionary, as the spokesman for backwardness. Nothing could be farther from the truth. He earnestly hoped to see of the evils of the Indian social system removed, the entire system reformed, and to this end he brought forward his own concrete proposals for improving social conditions. He was a staunch advocate of progress. At the same time, he relentlessly fought against the grandiose schemes of the Westernizing reformers. Instead of schemes he wanted concrete programmes for the he alleviation of real and pressing needs of the people. His reform work was direct, as in the case of the famine relief programme, the textile workers’ assistance, the plague prevention work. Tilak was not an arm-chair reformer; he was a worker with and for the people. His objection to the social reformism of men like Mr. Justice Ranade and his disciple, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Professor Bhandarkar, Byramji Malbari, Agarkar and the others, was two fold. First, without a full appreciation of the values that had been preserved and transmitted by the social system,  these men were willing to discard virtually everything, to remake India almost totally in the image of the West, and to base Indian social forms on the values they had learned from their Western education. To Tilak, it was folly, it was criminal, to banish everything created by India’s civilization because Indian values and Indian religion did not coincide with the nineteenth century European notions of materialism, rationalism and utilitarianism. He knew their obsession was contrary to common sense and good practice. He once wrote: ‘†¦.a number of our educated men began to accept uncritically the materialistic doctrines of the Westerners. Thus we have the pathetic situa tion of the new generation making on their minds a carbon copy of the gross materialism of the West’. 7 And he went on to remind the social reformers that ‘our present downfall is due not to Hindu religion but to the fact that we have absolutely forsaken religion.’ Second, since the reformers could not inspire mass popular support for their imitative social reform programme, they sought to enforce reform through administrative fiat, to rely upon the coercive power of the state, the alien state of the British rule, to effect social change. From Tilak’s viewpoint, to remake India in the image of the West would mean to destroy her greatness; and to use the force of an alien rule to impose any kind of reform would be to make that reform itself immoral. Reforms, to Tilak’s mind, must grow from within the people. Since he accepted this proposition as true, it logically followed that attempts to coerce the community to accept them were absurd. Reform, according to him, would have to be based upon the value system of the people and not on the values taught to the Westernized few in an alien system of education. The answer lay, he believed, in popular education which must be initiated with an understanding of the classical values and must proceed to recreate the vitality of those values in the forms of social order. Since the classical values were thoroughly intermixed with popular religion, he believed that ‘religious education will first and foremost engage our attention.’ In this way a new spirit will be born in India. India need not copy from some other civilization when the can rely on the spirit of her past greatness. As D. V. Athalye has written ‘The difference was this, that while Ranade was  prepared, if convenient, to coquette with religious sanction to social order, Tilak insisted that there should be no divorce between the two’. 8 proceeded to take action in accordance with his conviction. Because he wanted genuine reform and not simple imitation of Western life and manners, and because he believed that such reform must come from the people themselves and not from a foreign government, Tilak was led to advocate two causes which were to become his life’s work. First, he fought to reawaken India to her past and to base her future greatness on her past glories. Second, knowing well that real progress can only be made by a self-governing people, knowing that moral progress can only be made through moral and democratic decisions, knowing, therefore, that Swaraj or self-rule was the prerequisite of real social, political, economic, cultural and spiritual progress, Tilak began to think in terms of the restoration of Swaraj. The social reformers were prepared to criticise almost everything Indian, to imitate the West in the name of improvement, and to rely upon the power of a foreign government to bring about this improvement. They were convinced that only by social reform would they earn political reform; that, therefore, social reform must precede political reform. Tilak argued just the contrary way, that political reform must precede social reform; for it is only popular self-government that is moral government, that it is only moral government that can create moral social change; and, therefore, self-rule is necessary, and the first object which must be pursued is the awakening of the people to their heritage of self-rule. Tilak’s approach being more realistic and founded on solid moral values, he could perceive more clearly the root causes of the Indian social evils than did his social reform opponents. He felt that it was not simply the forms and practices of Indian society which had to be changed if meaningful social reforms were to be brought about. He sensed that abusive social practices were the direct outgrowth of the ‘spirit of orthodoxy’ which filled the forms of social order and inertly resisted change. This spirit had resulted from a thousand years of instability, defeat, foreign overlordship, defensiveness and inflexibility. Therefore, effective reform, Tilak believed, must ultimately depend upon a reawakening of the true, vital,  life-affirming spirit of the Indian people and civilization. Instead of criticising social form as the great evil, he began his battle with the atrophied spirit of orthodoxy while still engaged in his battle with the Westernized reformers. He wrote: ‘†¦..just as old and orthodox opinions (and their holders the Pandits etc.,) are one-sided, so the new English educated reformers’ are also and dogmatic. The old Sastries and Pandits do not know the new circumstances whereas the newly educated class of reformers are ignorant of the traditions and the traditional philosophy of Hinduism. Therefore, a proper knowledge of the old traditions and philosophies must be imparted to the newly educated classes, and the Pandits and Sastries must be given information about the newly changed and changing circumstances.’ 9 His battle was not characterized by abhorrence for the old spirit because he understood it and the role it had played. The spirit was locked up in forms, rituals, and customs, that had become virtually dead things. The orthodox spirit had served its purpose because it has transmitted classical values to a new generation who could understand them and bring about the necessary rebirth and reapplication of those values. The degraded aspects of the spirit of orthodoxy were lethargy, indolence, exclusiveness and inaction. They had fed on disunity and divisiveness, born of defensiveness and rigidity, and from this had arisen casteism in all its worst manifestations, defeatism and fatalism, the loss of the ideal of harmonious social cooperation, of courage and of self-respect–in a word, the dynamics of the classical philosophy of life had been perverted into negation and passivity. This spirit, Tilak believed, was harmful to India’s progress, and it was with this spirit that he did battle. Atrophied orthodoxy had no religious justification. Its spirit was in part the perversion and negation of the world and of the classical concept of the fulfilment of the purpose of life, the union of man with his Creator. But Tilak also realized that mere philosophical disputation was not enough for the re-awakening of India, and it required change in the hearts of people and not, as the reformers believed, change in the forms of institutions. As an editor who had always dedicated himself to popular  education, he first reached the people. As his chief colleague, N. C. Kelkar, wrote, ‘Through his paper, the Kesari, he exercised an immense influence over the masses, and it is this influence that is mainly responsible for the infusion of a new spirit among the people’. 10 He was a sincere, forceful speaker, and he taught from both the classroom and the public platform his new message of awakening India. Perhaps, the most effective way in which he reached the people was through the celebration of national festivals. He was instrumental in popularizing two great festivals, one to Ganapati, the Hindu deity of learning and propitiousness, and the other, a festival to revive the memory and glo ry of Shivaji, the liberator of Maharashtra, and the restorer of Swaraj through his fight with the Mogul Empire. He especially emphasised the dynamic spirit of Shivaji. He wrote, ‘It is the spirit which actuated Shivaji in his doings that is held forth as the proper ideal to be kept constantly in the view of the rising generation’. To keep this spirit in constant view, Tilak worked ceaselessly to reach the people and to educate them through the festivals. Throughout Maharashtra, he carried his doctrine, he waged his battle. Education through religion and history, through the association in the popular mind with gods and heroes, through recreating an appreciation of the heritage of the past as a guide to the future–this was the way he conducted his battle. He soon became the first articulate spokesman for the no-longer silent, tradition-directed, masses of India. He became the defender and the awakener of India’s philosophy of life. He taught first the dharma of action. This philosophy of action he drew from the Gita. He reminded the people that India had not become a great nation through negativism and indolence, but rather through a dynamic willingness to meet the problems of the day and to solve them morally. This was the greatest need of the present day. He often said such things as, ‘No one can expect Providence to protect one who sits with folded arms and throws his burden on others. God does not help the indolent. You must be doing all that you can to lift yourself up, and then only you may rely on the Almighty to help you’. 11 Along with the dharma of action, Tilak taught the dharma of unity to the  people of India. The unity of India, the unity of the Indian civilization, is Bharatdharma, the spiritually-based and spiritually-dedicated way of life. The spirit of orthodoxy had done injustice to that way of life. It had compartmentalised society, it had placed men in segregated and exclusive caste communities that were inimical to the feeling of common heritage and common cause. The true spirit of Varnashrama-dharma was harmony and cooperation and unity, and this spirit Tilak sought to reawaken through religious education. He wrote, ‘It is possible to unite the followers of Hinduism by the revival and growth of the Hindu religion’, for ‘the Hindu religion does not lie in caste, eating and drinking’. The Ganapati and Shivaji festivals served the purpose of bringing people together. People who worship a common deity, people who recognise a common historical tradition will, in his mind, be able to stand together, to overcome the disunity of social form and to work together for the common good. Tilak envisaged a unity of all the people of India, united among themselves and united with their traditions, united to face the future by the common ideals they held. In this way, through common, united effort, social evils could be corrected by the people themselves, and, moreover, the spirit of national revival, the restoration of national self-respect, essential for gaining self-rule, depended upon the restoration of national unity and mutual respect. Thus through his messages of action and unity and as editor of the Kesari and The Mahratta, Tilak became the acknowledged ‘awakener of India’. As editor of his newspapers, he also became active in political affairs. After he left the Deccan Education Society in 1889, he joined the Indian National Congress, hoping that it would be instrumental in further uniting the nation and in securing political reforms. He held a post in the Congress as early as 1892, as secretary of the Bombay Provincial Conference. At the same time, he actively participated in public affairs, holding public office on several occasions. In 1894, he was elected a Fellow of the Bombay University, and next year he held a post in the Poona Municipality. For two years he was a member of the Bombay Legislative Council, but, he called the completely circumscribed powers and the work of this body a ‘huge joke’. He did not  seek public office because he desired a political or governmental career but rather because it was one means, among several, which he chose to utilize to further the causes in which he strongly believed. But he soon realized that holding public office was one of the least effective ways of promoting his ends, and, more important, he Soon realized public office under the alien raj was self-defeating. About this time he also began to become disillusioned with the programme and policies of the Moderate-dominated Congress. His fighting spirit was antagonised by the predominant Congress attitude of pleading for reform and passing mild resolutions of protest against the abuses of the administration. The Congress was not coming to grips with the real problems of the people. In 1896, he publicly announced his disagreement with the policies of the Congress in writing, ‘For the last twelve years we have been shouting hoarse, desiring that the government should hear us. But our shouting has no more affected the government than the sound of a gnat. Our rulers disbelieve our statements, or profess to do so. Let us now try to force our grievances into their ears by strong constitutional means. We must give the best political education possible to the ignorant villagers. We must meet them on terms of equality, teach them their rights and show how to fight constitutionally. Then only will the government realize that to despise the Congress is to despise the Indian Nation. Then only will the efforts of the Congress leaders be crowned with success. Such a work will require a large body of able and single-minded workers, to whom politics would not mean some holiday recreation but an every-day duty to be performed with the strictest regularity and utmost capacity.’ 12 As he had relied on democratic social action through religious education, Tilak now relied on political education to rally the people behind the cause of political reform. He, therefore, began, through the pages of the Kesari and through an organisation of volunteer famine relief workers, to inform the poverty stricken peasants of their legal rights. He urged the people to protest against govern ­mental inaction. He sent out volunteers to collect detailed informa ­tion on the devastation in rural areas which he then forwarded to the government to support his case. He printed and distributed a leaflet explaining the provisions of the Famine Relief Code to the people  and urged them to take their case to the government. His efforts informed and aroused the people and alienated the bure ­aucracy. On the heels of the famine Poona was stricken by an epidemic of plague. The city was in a panic. Tragically, many of the educated, many of the leading social reformers, fled the city; T ilak did not. He offered his services to the government and went through the plague infested districts of the city with the Government Sanitation Teams. He opened and managed a hospital for plague victims when government facilities proved inadequate. He established a free kitchen, and did everything within his power to alleviate the tragic condition of the people. If social reform meant anything, it meant tireless work on behalf of the people in the time of their greatest need. His famine and plague work marked Tilak as the greatest social reformer and national hero of the country. He was acclaimed the Lokmanya, the honoured and respected of the people. The British bureaucracy and the Anglo-Indian press recognised that Tilak was an emerging leader of the people and of a new spirit in India. Those who lacked foresight began to fear him. When, in the tense atmosphere of famine and plague-racked Poona, a young man assassinated Rand, the British official in charge of plague relief, many of those who feared him were quick to blame Tilak for the death, although he had no knowledge of the incident. Nevertheless, he was convicted and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment. This was not to be Tilak’s last imprisonment. For two decades he was persecuted by the British Indian Government because they saw in him the greatest challenge to their rule over the Indian Empire. But Tilak was not an ordinary man who could be cowed down by such threats and persecutions. He remained undaunted throughout. He had fought against injustice, he had argued against the placating policies of the Moderates, and he now began to put forward a positive political programme centred round the concept of Swaraj, self-rule for India. As early as 1895, he had begun to preach the necessity for Swaraj. He came to realize that self-rule must precede meaningful social reform, that the only enduring basis for national unity and national self-respect must be national self-rule, In 1895, he had reminded the people that Shivaji had recreated Swaraj as the necessary  foundation of social and political freedom and progress and morality. His historical and philosophic frame of reference is clearly set out in his writing, ‘One who is a wee bit introduced to history knows what is Swarajya (people’s own government) and Swadharma (people’s own religion), knows the extraordinary qualities that are needed for the founder to establish Swarajya and Swadharma when both of them are in a state of ruin for hundreds of years, knows the valour, courage, guts and brains of Shivaji Maharaj by the dint of which he saved the whole nation from bitter ruin’. 13 His insistence on Swaraj was completely consistent with his personal, social and political philosophy. He approached all issues as a realist. He had the example of his own Maharashtrian history and the categorical imperative of his nation’s philosophy. As Aurobindo Ghose has written, ‘To found the greatness of the future on the greatness of the past, to infuse Indian politics with Indian religious fervour and spirituality, are the indispensable conditions for a great and powerful political awakening in India. Others, writers, thinkers, spiritual leaders, had seen this truth. Mr. Tilak was the first to bring it into the actual field of practical politics’.14 Tilak examined the political problems of his day in the light of ‘the God-given Inspiration’ of India’s civilization. And with the urgency of the situation arising out of the partition of Bengal and the need for an effective programme of political action, he joined the group of the Nationalists and presented a programme and a line of action to the nation. The Nationalists initiated mass political education in terms understandable to the people. Tilak sounded the keynote in saying, ‘To spread our dharma in our people is one of the aspects of the national form of our religion’, because, in his opinion, ‘Politics cannot be separated from religion’. Exactly the same opinion was expressed later on by Mahatma Gandhi. The reason for political education and political action was not merely the injustice of foreign rule, not merely the arbitrary partitioning of Bengal. Self-rule was a moral necessity, the achievement of self-rule was the dharma of all self-respecting men. As he later wrote in the Gita-rahasya, ‘The  blessed Lord had to show the importance and the necessity of performing at all costs the duties enjoined by one’s dharma while life lasts’. And, for Tilak and the Nationalists, ‘Swaraj is our dharma’. Political action would alone accomplish the national dharma. In order that India solve her own destiny, the first essential, as in the case of the awakening of India, was the call for action, for a new spirit of courage and self-sacrifice. Only a pride in history and the values of India’s own civilization could inspire men to the task ahead. Tilak movingly wrote, ‘To succeed in any business with full self-control and determination, does not generally happen in spite of our valour, unless a firm conviction is engendered in our minds, that we are doing good work and God is helping us and that the religious instinct and the blessings of the saints are at our back’.15 It was with this firm conviction that Tilak and the Nationalists set out to arouse the nation to political action for the creation of its own destiny. Tilak and the Nationalists presented the nation with a three-fold programme for effective, practical, political action. The three principles were boycott, Swadeshi and national education. Originally, they were designed for use in Bengal, as the most effective way to bring the British administrators to their senses over the issue of the partition. But it was soon decided, however, that the entire nation could well cooperate with Bengal in following this threefold programme and thus increase tremendously the pressure on the British. And it was further taught that the great wrong, the significant evil, was not alone that an alien raj had partitioned the province of Bengal, but actually that Bengal was only a symbol, that an alien raj ruled autocratically over the whole nation of India, and that it was to alleviate this wrong that the programme was to be employed. Boycott initially involved the refusal of the people to purchase British-manufactured goods. It was started as a measure designed to bring economic pressure on the British business interests both in India and abroad. If British business could be moved, then the business could be counted on to move the British raj. But soon the boycott movement took on far more significant aspects than merely economic pressure. The Nationalists saw that the whole superstructure of the British Indian administration, that  the British system of rule over India, was based upon the willing, or at least unthinking, cooperation of the Indian people. Tilak was one of the first to discern this, and he realized that boycott could be expanded to the point of jeopardizing the foundation of the whole British administrative machinery in India. In a speech at Poona, as early as 1902, he urged, ‘You must realize that you are a great factor in the power with which the administration in India is conducted. You are yourselves the useful lubricants which enable the gigantic machinery to work so smoothly. Though downtrodden and neglected, you must be conscious of your power of making the administration impossible if you but choose to make it so. It is you who manage the railroad and the telegraph, it is you who make settlements and collect revenues, it is in fact you who do everything for the administration though in a subordinate capacity. You must consider whether you cannot turn your hand to better use for your nation than drudging on in this fashion. Boycott gradually moved from the economic into the political sphere; it moved from the arena of Bengal to all-India. Boycott as an all-India political weapon was the first principle of the programme of Tilak and the Nationalist leaders. Boycott fore-shadowed non-cooperation. Swadeshi initially began as a primary economic counterpart to the programme of economic boycott. Swadeshi meant self-help, to rely upon Indian-made goods rather than to patronize the retail outlets of the manufactured produce of Birmingham and Manchester. Beginning in Bengal, bonfires of European clothing lit the night sky, and the people turned to local Indian production of Swadeshi goods. Swadeshi was the first great impetus to industrial development in India. Local Indian production was given the stimulus for its natural growth. But like boycott, Swadeshi soon came to mean a great deal more than simple economic self-sufficiency. If there could be self-help in the economic sphere, then there most certainly could be self-help in all spheres of life. The dharma of action had taught self-respect and self-reliance, and Swadeshi extended self-reliance to self-help in all things. Swadeshi was a tangible way in which to demonstrate the new spirit, Tilak and the Nationalists had been teaching the people. The Swadeshi movement quickly became a movement of national regeneration. Swadeshi was a practical application of love of country. As Tilak said, ‘To recognise the land of the Aryans as mother-earth is the Swadeshi movement’. It was an economic, political and spiritual weapon. Swadeshi was Vande Mataram in action. The third element in the threefold programme for effective political action was national education. Tilak had long before realized that the Western education started by Lord Macaulay and pursued in all the Government-supported schools was ruinous to the future health and well-being of the nation. The younger generations were being educated away from not only their families and the great majority of the Indian people, but also away from the value system of India’s civilization. Government-supported Western education uprooted the youths from their ties to the past and made them Indians in name only. Hence such a system of Western education was repulsive to Tilak and the Nationalists. They pleaded for the establishment of national schools and colleges throughout the country to provide inexpensive and wholesome education emphasising the new spirit of self-help and self-reliance which young people could not expect to receive in the Government-supported institutions. And national education became an integral part of the nationalist programme for the India of the twentieth century. This threefold programme of boycott, Swadehsi and national education was presented to the country by Tilak and the Nationalists and was also presented to the Indian National Congress for its approval and adoption. The programme began primarily as an economic weapon but quickly its political importance was realized and became predominant. The impetus behind the programme was initially a reaction to the partitioning of Bengal, but it soon developed an all-India momentum. The first reason for its use was to induce the government to reunify Bengal, but it soon became a programme for national reawakening and national liberation–Swaraj. Thus, an economic programme became a political programme; a locally centred agitation became a national issue; the cause of altering a specific British policy evolved into the cause of gaining India’s self-determination. Swaraj became the reason and justification for the entire programme and movement led by Tilak and the Nationalists. Tilak realized that Swaraj, the goal of all efforts, was a moral national necessity. He held that the attainment of Swaraj would be a great victory for Indian nationalism. He gave to Indians the mantra: Swaraj is the birth-right of Indians (at the Lucknow Congress of 1916). He defined Swaraj as ‘people’s rule instead of that of bureaucracy’. This was the essence of Tilak’s argument with the social reformers when they sought to have the British Government legislate and enforce social reform measures. Tilak held that unless the people supported the reforms, in effect, unless the people exercised self-rule to legislate and enforce the reforms, the reforms were not only meaningless but also undemocratic and without moral significance. And for pushing his ideal of Swaraj forward, he started Home Rule Leagues in 1916 with the cooperation of Mrs. Annie Besant, which soon became so popular that the Government had to adopt severe repressive measures. But he went on undeterred with the propaganda of Home Rule throughout the country. He intended that a bill should be introduced in the British Parliament for Indian Home Rule, by the good offices of the Labour leaders, although he could not be successful in the attempt. However, the fact that Tilak began his Home Rule agitation in the year 1916 is an eloquent testimony to his keen perception of political realities. Tilak contemplated a federal type of political structure under Swaraj. He referred to the example of the American Congress and said that the Government of India should keep in its hands similar powers to exercise them through an impartial council. Although in his speeches and writings Tilak mostly stated that Swaraj did not imply the negation and severance of ultimate British sovereignty, we have every reason to believe that in his heart of hearts he always wanted complete independence. He once said that ‘there could be no such thing as partial Swaraj’. Self-rule under Dharmarajya either existed fully or did not exist at all. Partial Swaraj was a contradiction in terms. Only the Westernized few who could not understand this could talk in such contradictory terms, could agree to settle for administrative reforms, could not see that ‘Swaraj is India’s birth-right’. Through Swaraj, the revolutionary change in the theory of government, and  through Swaraj; alone, could the destiny of India be fulfilled! This is Tilak’s real meaning when he wrote, ‘Swaraj is our dharma’. Before the people of the nation he set this goal. Next he set about to make it a political reality, to implement the programme to bring about the goal. For the correct implementation of his programme, Tilak urged the method of non-violent passive resistance. Here it must be made clear that many foreign critics regard Tilak as a revolutionary. Chirol, 16 John S. Hoyland17, and several others, think that Tilak believed in armed revolution, that he was responsible for many political murders and that his speeches and articles contained â€Å"a covert threat of mutiny.† But it is not true. Undoubtedly, he supported the action of Shivaji in killing Afzal Khan. He appreciated the daring and skill of Chafekar, as also the patriotic fervour of the Bengal revolutionaries. But, as a moralist he put the highest premium on the purification of intentions. The external action could never be regarded as the criterion of moral worth. Hence if Arjuna or Shivaji or any other ardent patriot did commit or would commit some violent action, being impelled by higher altruistic motives, Tilak would not condemn such persons. But in spite of his metaph ysical defence of altruistic violence, Tilak never preached political murder; nor did he ever incite anybody to commit murder as a political means. A realist in politics though he was, he never taught the omnicompetence of force as Machiavelli or Treitschke did. His realism taught him to act in the political universe in such a way, that his opponents could not take advantage of him. Only by passive resistance and democratic means, he taught, could the united action of the people prove powerful enough to bring about the non-violent revolution that was Swaraj. Boycott and Swadeshi were, in effect, the precursors of the later non-cooperation movement. The passive resistance taught by him and the Nationalists was the precursor to non-violent civil disobedience. Tilak clearly foresaw that violence would be wasteful, and that it would ultimately be ineffectual. Being a realist, he recognised that ‘the military strength of the Government is enormous and a single machinegun showering hundreds of bullets per minute will quite suffice for our largest public meetings’.18 Action must be direct, but, realistically appraising the power of the Government, he urged that it be passive as well. He continually  taught, ‘As our fight is going to be constitutional and legal, our death also must, as of necessity, be constitutional and legal. We have not to use any violence’. 19 Thus Tilak’s method of action was democratic and constitutional. He had stirred the popular imagination and taught the people the necessity for united action. He had constructed a practical programme for the achievement of his political objective. He had defined for all time the purpose of the Indian movement for self-rule–Swaraj–and he had begun to develop the techniques that would be used in the popular movement to realize that goal effectively. Tilak left a monumental legacy to the independence movement. Gandhiji and those who came after Tilak could build upon the work and the victories which he had won. In his battles against orthodoxy, lethargy and bureaucracy he was largely successful. The independence movement, largely through his work, had been victorious, over stagnation, the spirit of orthodoxy that was negative, that compartmentalised rather than unified, and that could not rise to accept the challenges of the twentieth century. Tilak freed the nation from lethargy and stagnation, and in awakening the people, inspired them with a promise of awakening India, an India united, strong and capable of action, self-reliant and on the road to victory. 1 Kesari, june 1, 1897. 2 N. C. Kelkar, Pleasures and Privileges of the Pen, BK. I, p. 121. 3 A. Ghose, The Foundations of Indian Culture, pp. 8–9. 4 S. V. Bapat (ed.), Gleanings from Tilak’s Writings and Speeches, p. 346. 5 Kesari, Spt. 19, 1905. 6 A. Ghose, The foundations of Indian Culture, p 63. 7 Kesari, September 19,1905. 8 D. V. Athalye, The Life of Lokamanya Tilak, p. 54. 9 Kesari, Jan 21, 1904. 10 N. C. Kelkar, Landmarks in Lokamanya Life, p. 10. 11 B. G. Tilak, His Writings and Speeches, p. 277. 12 Kesari, January 12, 1896. 13 Kesari, July 2, 1895. 14 A. Ghose, in Introductory Appreciation to Bal Gangadhar Tilak, His Writings and Speeches, p. 7. 15 Gleanings from Tilak’s Writings and Speeches, p. 121. 16 V. Chirol, India, pp. 121-22. 17 John S. Hoyland, Gokhale, pp. 24-25. 18 B. G. Tilak, His Writings and Speeches, p. 64 and 69. 19 Ibid., p. 229-30. Back Independence Day Speech in English | Essay A very happy Independence day to my honorable Chief Guest, my respectable teachers & parents and all my lovely brothers and sisters. As You all Know Today we have gathered here for celebrating the 68th Independence day of our country. The day when India got freedom against the British Rule after so many years of struggle. On this day we pay tribute to our great freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sarojini Naidu and many others who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of our country. It is on this day in 1947 that Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the constituent assembly at the Parliament, delivering his famed, eloquent speech, Tryst with Destiny announcing India’s freedom at midnight. This announcement brought about a rise in spirits all over the country, for India was finally realizing a dream to be a free nation, free from oppression and domination under the British rule. It was a historic day as India finally shook off the shack les of British Rule and became free. It was a night of celebration all over the country. This year in 2014, India will complete 67 years of Independence from the colonial Rule and will celebrate it’s 68th Independence day. This day is started with Flag Hoisting ceremonies, Parades and whole day different types of cultural programs & events are organized in India in schools, colleges and offices. The President and PM of India give ‘messages to the country’ . After hoisti the National Flag at the Red fort, the PM give a speech on some past achievements, some moral issues of present time and calls for the  further developments. The PM also salutes and remember to the oblation of the legender patriots of our country in his speech. Despite these the people of India celebrate this day through display the flag at shop, accessories, Car/bicycle and they also watching patriot movies and listening patriot songs and many other things. Every Indians ‘s important duty is that to give full respect the Independence day & National Flag and also understand the importance of this day. But in this modern age, the peoples are enjoying their life as much that they are not giving so importance of this day. We request to that people that at list one time remember to our legender patriot on this day. In this present time in our country there increases a lots of evils issues like Terrorism, Corruption, Women oppression etc All these evils really destroy our culture very badly. We shoul all take pledge to make our country safe and worth living for each and every individual of the society. So, I request all of you to sing with me national anthem ‘Jan-Gan-Man†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ . Vande Mataram. Bharat Mata Ki Jai. Thank you everyone & JAI HIND. – See more at: SPEECH FOR INDEPENDENCE DAY 13/8/2014 A very happy Independence day to my honorable Chief Guest, Head Mistress and my respectable teachers & parents and all my lovely brothers and sisters As You all Know Today we have gathered here for celebrating the 68th Independence day of our country. The day when India got freedom against the British Rule after so many years of struggle. On this day we pay tribute to our great freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sarojini Naidu and many others who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of our country. Today I am going to tell you few words about Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a man of an spirited energy and a new vision, was born in Maharashtra in 1856. He is considered to be the ‘Father of Indian Unrest’  He was a scholar of Indian history, Sanskrit, mathematics, astronomy and Hinduism With an aim to impart teachings about Indian culture and national ideals to India’s youth, Tilak along with Agarkar and Vishnushstry founded the ‘Deccan Education Society’. Soon after that Tilak started two weeklies, ‘Kesari’ and ‘Marathi’ to highlight plight of Indians. He also started the celebrations of Ganapati Festival and Shivaji Jayanti to bring people close together and join the nationalist movement against British. In fighting for people’s cause, twice he was sentenced to imprisonment. He launched Swadeshi Movement and believed that ‘Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it’. This quote inspired millions of Indians to join the freedom struggle. With the goal of Swaraj, he also built ‘Home Rule League’. Tilak constantly traveled across the country to inspire and convince people to believe in Swaraj and fight for freedom. He was constantly fighting against injustice and one sad day on August 1, 1920, he died.