Saturday, August 31, 2019
In this essay I am going to write about how Dickens presents Estella and Magwitch, two key characters in the story, and the purpose of them.Ã Pip firsts meets Magwitch in a graveyard on Christmas Eve. He has a leg iron, this shows that the story was written when leg irons were still used, in the Victorian times.Ã Pip firsts meets Magwitch in a graveyard on a cold Christmas Eve. Pip finds him threatening and is scared by him we know this because pip tells us that he was Ã¢â¬Ëa fearful man all in coarse greyÃ¢â¬â¢ and when they first meet, Magwitch says Ã¢â¬Ëkeep still you little boy or IÃ¢â¬â¢ll cut your throatÃ¢â¬â¢. He asks him to bring him some food and drink and a file He does exactly what Magwitch asked him to do, and brings him all the things he needed. Even through pip is threatened by him he is still intrigued and asks Mrs. Joe and Joe about the Ã¢â¬ËhulkÃ¢â¬â¢ where Magwitch said his was from, even Though every times he asks he gets told off he continues to ask and finds out it is a prison ship and that Magwitch must be a convict. When the police arrive at pips door on Christmas Day pip is scared it is about stealing the pork pie for the convict, but they are just there to get some handcuffs fixed by his brother-in-law Joe Gargery.Ã Pip makes sure that Magwitch knows it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t him to told the police about his presence on the marshes, and Magwitch sticks up for pip by saying Ã¢â¬ËI took some wittles, up at the village over yonder-where the church stands aÃ¢â¬â¢ most out on the marshesÃ¢â¬â¢ this shows the reader that Magwitch does have a heart and wants to make sure Pip doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get him into trouble and actually has the time to say it, when he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to and it was inconvenience for him. Magwitch is not very well spoken and has an accent, Magwitch say Ã¢â¬ËwittlesÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning food shows he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an gentleman and hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been taught to speak properly he also says Ã¢â¬Ëlookee hereÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdyeeÃ¢â¬â¢. He pronounces his Ã¢â¬ËvÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËwÃ¢â¬â¢. Magwitch comes across as a threatening, strong and violent character but later in the story you find out that he is quite emotional and caring. He benefactors his life saving which he must have worked hard for, he gives them to pip because he lost his daughter.Ã aPip often refers to Magwitch as Ã¢â¬Ëmy friendÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëmy convictÃ¢â¬â¢ this shows there is a real connection, most young child when threatened like Pip was would run away, but pip lingers and tries to engage Magwitch. Magwitch does affect pip he is younger life but only a bit, Pip forgets him when he is growing up, but when he finds out that he is his benefactor all of his memories come flooding back. When Pip is becoming a gentleman thanks to Magwitch he is told Magwitch would be taken to prison and maybe killed, Pip feels that it is his duty to help him and act like a son to him, as it, in a way is how Magwitch treated pip. Pip first meets Estella when he is asked to go and play at Miss Havishams home; from the moment he saw her he thought that she was beautiful when she takes him to see Miss Havisham he say that Ã¢â¬Ëshe shines along the dark passage like a starÃ¢â¬â¢, and when he is asked by Miss Havisham what he thinks and feels about Estella the first thing he says without hesitation is Ã¢â¬ËI think she is very prettyÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã Estella follows Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s every demand. Estella is repeatedly told to break pip heart by Miss Havisham and of course Estella does.Ã She is vulnerable towards Miss Havisham, and Pip is to her, he falls in love with her very easily even though Estella is very honest towards him by telling him not to and that she has no heart, she does allow him to kiss her on the cheek a few times, this keeps Pips love for her alive and it seems she is always present to Pip even absent. It is because of Estella Pip aspires to be a gentleman in his visits to Miss Havisham Estella frequently says things such as Ã¢â¬Ëwith this boy?!, why he is a common labouring boy!Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ë..And what coarse hands he has! And what thick bootsÃ¢â¬â¢ this made Pip feels negative and embarrassed about himself when before he felt positive and comfortable.Ã Estella plays a big role in Pips childhood she was his first love and only love, Everything he does has a connection to her, he either does it to impress her or to get closer to her and many other things, if Pip had never of met Estella he would not be so determined to do the things he did, this is a good thing because Pip turned out to have a better life then he would of with Joe, but at the same time is heart is broken, which is not positive.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Education is so important in any given society. For this reason, it forms a major part of any governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s plans. The plans that any government wishes to implement as regards their education system is determined by existing policies. Factors which influence formulation of policies form the subject of this discussion. For orderly presentation, the essay is divided into three chapters namely the introduction, the main body and conclusion.The introduction gives definitions of key terms used in the essay as well as conceptual frame work, the main body outlines and discusses major factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving their independence and lastly the conclusion draws a summary of the essay. 1. 1 Statement of essay purpose This essay aims at discussing the factors which influenced education policies in African countries after their achievement of independence.The essay will outline these factors and later give a detailed discussion of each factor. 1. 2 Definitions of terms In order to make this discussion meaningful, it is imperative that definitions of key terms that are involved are done. The key terms involved in the discussion are education, policy and independence. The definitions of the terms are as given below EducationAccording to the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organisation (1975:1), education is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"organised and sustained communication designed to bring about learningÃ¢â¬ Thus education in this context involves a lifelong process by which an individual is incorporated into the group and made capable of behaving in the ways expected by the society for an individual of a particular age, sex or status. Education can take place formally, non formally and informally. However, in this context the emphasis is on formal education. PolicyA policy is defined as a deliberate plan of action which is put in place to guide decisions and achieve intended outcomes. Policies differ fro m rules or laws. Rules or laws are established to compel or prohibit certain behaviours while policies guide actions towards desired goals. This discussion, however, focuses on education policies. Bartlett and Burton (2012:134), define an education policy as the Ã¢â¬Å"rafts of laws and initiatives that determine the shape and functioning of educational systems at both national and local levels. Therefore, education policies give direction to the functioning of an education system.Independence This is defined as the freedom from being governed or ruled by another country. African countries in this discussion acquired the freedom to rule themselves from colonial mast 1. 3 Conceptual Framework Blackmore (1999), states that there are three models of policy making namely popular participation, decree and delegation models. This discussion will refer to these three models in outlining and discussing the factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving thei r independence. These models are discussed in detail below. (a) Popular Participation Policy making model(b) In this model, everybody is given an opportunity to contribute to the formulation of policies. People in African countries were given opportunities to make suggestions on changes to make to the education system. For example, ZambiaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational reforms of 1977. (c) Decree Policy Making Model In this model, the head of state makes pronouncements on the direction to be followed in a given education system. (d) Delegation Policy Making Model This involves appointing a commission to review the education system of a given country. For example the Onide Commission was appointed to review the education system of Kenya in 1963.Policies are made with respect to the findings of the commission. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 Main Body This chapter outlines and discusses the major factors that influenced education policies in African countries after achieving independence. These factors are as given and discussed below. Education for Economic Development The consideration given to education as an important vehicle for economic development is one of the factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving independence. Investment in formal education was considered as an essential precondition for economic growth.African countries learnt lessons from developed countries that a high basic platform of education was a catalyst to rapid economic development. There was a belief among developing countries that the modernisation, industrialisation and wealth of developed countries were the direct consequence of their educational systems. Coombs (1970) argues that during the 1960s education in developing countries was regarded as a sort of intellectual yeast which would ferment and transform pre industrial societies by promoting knowledge, skills and attitudes which were favourable to economic and social development.Therefore, education policies in Afri can countries after the achievement of independence were directed at promoting education pro vision expansion in order to achieve meaningful development. In fact an argument is advanced by Anderson (1965), that analysis of evidence from major developed countries such as Britain, France, United States of America and Russia that in general terms, a thresh hold male literacy rate of 40 percent was required before there be any significant take off of economic development.To this end, African countries directed their policies on education after attaining independence towards increased access to education in order to reach the required thresh hold of literacy. Therefore, in the 1950s and 1960s, demand and plans for investment in formal education by African countries increased. Education was regarded to be a principal weapon in achieving economic growth. To this end rapid quantitative expansion of the education system became the order of the day in newly independent African countries. Man power ShortagesAfter attaining independence, African countries were confronted with shortage of manpower in various sectors of the economy. As a result of this scenario, they experienced economic stagnation. Man power shortages were heavily felt in technical and managerial fields. Thus, education policies in most African countries were directed towards resolving the man power shortages experienced. This situation was evident from what obtained in Kenya. As Eshiwani (1993:26), observes Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢at independence in 1963, Kenya found herself with a high shortage of skilled manpower to run the economy.In order to solve this problem, a commission was appointed to advise the government on the formulation and interpretation of national educational policies. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, it can be stated that man power planning in newly independent countries of Africa gave a direction to the formulation of education policies. Consequently, the governments of newly independent countries of Africa saw it paramount to expand the education systems of their countries in order to produce more graduates from the education system that would fill the manpower gaps which were experienced in various sectors of the economy.Most technical and managerial jobs at independence in most African countries were occupied by foreigners. Therefore, the aim of most African governments was to decolonise the education systems, produce more output from secondary and higher education so that manpower to participate in national development could be realised. Fafunwa (1974), Contends that education development in African countries like Nigeria was treated as a national emergency for the reason of curbing manpower shortages in crucial areas of the economy.In order to meet the requirements of manpower in various sectors of the economy, the policies of African countries after independence were directed at increasing school enrolments, especially at the post primary level. Rapid expansion of secondary and h igher education was considered as a pre requisite for sustainable economic growth. Enhancing education as a basic human right Newly independent African countries were confronted with a task of providing to every child their basic, essential right to education.The kind education that was to be provided was supposed to be relevant to the child in his or her African setting. For this reason, most newly African countries had massive capital and recurrent budgets towards the financing of primary education for all. The provision of education especially at elementary level to citizens of newly independent African countries was prompted by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights in which education is enshrined as a basic human right. As Bishop (1989:1), postulates, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone has the right to education.Education shall be free at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally a vailable and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, from the foregoing, newly independent African countries were compelled to provide education especially primary education on the grounds of human justice and equity. The newly independent African countries were supposed to consider primary education as the birth right of every child.This was due to the fact that education was seen as an effective way to give all children regardless of sex or family background an equal start in life. Furthermore, the leadership of newly independent African countries considered education to be the great equaliser that would help to narrow the wide disparities which were apparent in conditions of living in rural and urban communities. Before the attainment of independence, education in most African countries was a preserve for the elite.In order to correct this, African leaders made radical changes to their education systems to make them more accomm odative to everyone. As Carmody (1994:23), contends Ã¢â¬Å"As in most African countries, from the early days AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders viewed education as a powerful, often the most powerful vehicle for social transformation. Thus, as the UNIP government assumed power, among its immediate priorities were the elimination of racial segregation in schools and expansion of education provision. Tuition and boarding fees were abolished.Ã¢â¬ A point was also made by Bishop (1989), which in the days of the 1950s and 1960s massive expansion of education provision was regarded as the best means available for rooting out old prejudices and socio economic injustices. Therefore, education was regarded as basic human right which everyone needed to enjoy as provided in the foregoing arguments. In the pursuit of providing universal primary education, newly African countries set for themselves benchmarks. For example, the Addis Ababa conference on the development of education in Africa held in 1961 recommended that primary education was to be universal, compulsory and free by 1980.The conference further recommended that secondary education was to be provided to 30 percent of the children who completed primary school. Similarly, the conference of Arab states which met in Tripoli in 1966 also set 1980 as the target date for achieving universal primary education. To this end, it can be argued that one of the factors that influenced the formulation of education policies of African countries after achieving independence was related to the consideration that education was a basic human right which every citizen of a given country was supposed to enjoy.Hence, massive investment in the provision of education was undertaken by African countries after attaining independence in order to promote the achievement of universal primary education. As Court and Kinyanjui (1978:14), comment on the provision of Universal Primary Education in Tanzania. Ã¢â¬Å"President Nyerere had the choice of e xpanding the number of classes at grades V to VII so that those children entering primary education received seven years of schooling instead of fourÃ¢â¬ .It can be concluded from the foregoing statement that the decision was arrived at because it enabled finances to be spent on the provision of 7 years of education to one child which helped him or her to become a useful member of society. African countries aimed at improving the access to education by increasing the number of school places which was facilitated by expanding already existing schools as well as construction of new schools in different parts of their countries. Promotion of ModernisationAfrican countries formulated their education policies with respect to the purpose of attaining modernisation. In order to influence modernisation in their countries, there was massive investment in education. This was a result of the belief that schooling would assist in the inculcation of modern ideas and attitudes. Bishop (1989), p ostulate that evidence seemed to indicate that schooling influenced the development of modern traits and ideas. To this end, schooling had some impact on modernisation. This was manifestated in higher levels of modernity among urban people and lower modernity among rural people.Consequently, many African leaders in newly independent countries felt modernisation of attitudes and behaviours was an important pre requisite for their countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ development. According to Carmody (1994), education should socialise a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s population into modern values, attitudes and personalities. For this reason there was more emphasis on the expansion of education systems in newly independent African countries in order to enhance the access levels. Increased access to education meant increased modernity levels within a given country.In studies which were conducted be Inkeles and Smith (1974), indicate that education was the single most variable for modernisation. The studies indicate tha t each year of schooling improved a personÃ¢â¬â¢s score on their modernity scale by about 2 points. Education was also very effective in the development of positive attitudes and values. For this reason, formulation of education policies in newly independent African countries was influenced by the idea of modernisation. Modernisation was to be attained by every citizen in the newly independent African countries through education.Ensuring CitizensÃ¢â¬â¢ Political Participation The citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in political affairs of their countries could be seen as one of the major factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving independence. Political participation of citizens of a particular country was linked to the notion of modernisation. This was due to the fact that knowledge was regarded as power. For this reason, many political leaders of African drafted educational policies which were responsive to the promotion of political participat ion of citizens in nation matters.This was highly evident in the content of education which was offered to the citizens . Again this could only be realised through the wide spread of education in African countries which most leaders promoted through the expansion of the education system. Cowan (1965), stressed that any political principle which governed education policy in independent African countries was supposed to regard as a top priority the provision of an education that would establish the most vigorous form of self government and independence.Therefore, extending schooling to a larger population would make more people politically and socially conscious and more active in the process of nation building. Thus, if equal political rights were to be enjoyed by everyone then everyone ought to have at least an adequate primary school education to participate more fully in the political process of their country. Promotion of Social Equality and Removal of Divisions The attainment of social equality is among the major factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving independence.Education was regarded as an instrument of social equality which was critical in the upbringing of social responsibility. Therefore, education policies which were put in place by African countries after attainment of independence were directed towards the promotion of social equality within their countries. Consequently, more and more school places were created in most parts of African countries to bring about the issue of equality within their countries in the provision of education services.Equality in the provision of education was called for as it ensured that child was provided with varied and challenging opportunities for collective activities and corporate social services. Furthermore, Eshiwani (1993), points out that the promotion of social equality in the formulation of education policies in African countries after achieving independence helped y oung people to acquire positive attitudes of mutual respect which enabled them to live together in harmony and to make a positive contribution to the national life.This contribution to national life was not supposed to be extended to every part of the country, hence the need of social equality in the provision of education. Respect and Development of Cultural Heritage The formulation of education policies in African countries after achieving independence was influenced by the need for promoting respect and development of cultural heritage. Education policies were directed towards the promotion of respect, fostering and developing the rich cultures which African countries have.For this reason, policy formulation as regards this situation was clearly addressed in the content of education which African countries were to provide to their people. The content of education was adapted to the culture of the people in any particular African country. In support of this assertion, Eshiwani (19 93), states that the commission which was assigned to review KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s education system in 1963 recommended that Kenyan schools were to respect the cultural traditions of the people of the country, both as expressed in social institutions and relationships.Similarly, Damachi et al (1978), reports that education policies in African countries after attainment of independence were influenced by the need to enhance every aspect of human development which included the promotion of cultural heritage. Consequently, African countries were to state clearly their language of instruction in their education system both at lower and higher levels. This was done with the sole aim of promoting the preservation of cultural heritage and national unity.To this end the education policies which most African countries drafted after the attainment of independence were geared towards learners understanding of past and present cultural values and their valid place in contemporary society. Education fo r Self Reliance The education policies of African countries were influenced by the need for the curriculum offered to respond to the attainment of self reliance. Thus the recipients of such education were supposed to engage themselves in self employing activities.The curriculum of African countries emphasized practical subjects in order to ensure the acquisition of self reliance by learners. It was realised that the kind of education which was offered in some countries in Africa was too bookish and academic. The education system in most African countries separated manual work from learning. Thus theory was separated from practice. This situation further alienated young people from their societies. Therefore, education reforms in most African countries were inevitable so as reverse this trend.As Bishop (1989:116), reports Ã¢â¬Å"By the mid 1950s it was being argued once again that schooling should be reformed principally through curriculum reform to include more practical and vocatio nal studiesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Similarly, Carmody (1994), reports that ZambiaÃ¢â¬â¢s First National Development Plan pointed to the need for increasingly relating secondary education to the needs of the country by diversifying the secondary school syllabus into technical and commercial fields and giving a new place to agriculture. Therefore, it can be pointed out that education policies in African countries were supposed to address the concept of self reliance.Academic schooling was to be placed side by side with technical and vocational training in African countries. Improvement of Education Efficiency The education policies of most African countries after achieving independence were influenced by the need of improving the efficiency of the education systems. In education systems of African countries, it was felt that there was no correlation between inputs and out puts as well as between costs and returns. Education policies were centred on the need of making the systems of educati on to be more efficient.That is, the education systems were supposed to achieve their output at the lowest cost and also get the greatest return for a given cost. According to Bishop (1989), most education systems in African countries after achieving independence were inefficient, particularly at secondary and higher levels. The inputs such as expenditure per student or teacher training did not seem to have the effects on test scores which educators anticipated. Therefore, education policies were designed in a manner that would make the education systems in newly independent African countries to be more efficient.Additionally, education in many African countries was dysfunctional. It relied heavily on rote learning and led to an inappropriate reverence for paper qualifications. Furthermore, most curricular in African countries were irrelevant to pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ future lives and created an imbalance with many school leavers unemployed. Consequently, African countries formulated polici es which were aimed at addressing the challenges which were faced in education systems. Education as a means of fostering international consciousness Education policies in African countries were influenced by the need to foster international consciousness in learners.Education policies as complimented by the content of education provided to learners was supposed to ensure that positive attitudes towards other countries as well as the international community were upheld. This was emphasized because no country existed as an island. Each country depended on others for its prosperity. Therefore, it was essential that learners were provided with education that would instil international consciousness for the purpose of promoting cooperation among countries.CHAPTER THREE. 3.0 CONCLUSIONEducation policies in African countries after their achievement of independence were influenced by a number of factors. Some of the major factors which influenced education policies in African countries inc luded manpower shortages, recognition of education as a basic human right, consideration of education as a tool for development, modernisation, improving education efficiency, need for citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ political participation, and promotion of international consciousness among learners as well as self reliance.Changes in education policies were inevitable due to the fact that African countries experienced change in government. A change in government is associated with an ideological shift, thus aspects of the education system in a given country will be in a continual state of reformation. Hence, changes occurred in education aspects such as content, teaching methodologies, assessment and structure.
Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School A Thesis Proposal Presented to Ms. Marjorie Miguel College of Arts and Letters Bulacan State University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Communication Arts II For the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication Major in Broadcasting By Calara, Jerica Mae S. P. Mendoza, Justine Mary Robert A. Navalta, Erl Chak S. J. Panti, Jeaneth D. P. Villalon, Maria Neren E. March 2012 BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and LettersSchool Year 2011 March 22, 2012 Faculty of the College of Arts and Letters College of Arts and Letters Bulacan State University Malolos Bulacan To whom it may concern: Greetings! We, the Insiders from the freshmen of BA Mass Communication Major in broadcasting, are presenting our thesis proposal entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School,Ã¢â¬ written by Jerica Mae S. P. Calara, Justine Mary Robert A. Mendoza, Erl Chak S. J. Navalta, Jeaneth D. P. Panti, and Ma. Neren E.Villalon, guided and mentored by the Communication Arts II professor, Ms. Marjorie Miguel. This contains all the relevant information about media violence and its effects in the psychological development of an individual, particularly, the high school students of Bulacan State University. Rest assured that all the information contained in this proposal are true and reliable to best of our knowledge and beliefs. Yours truly, __________________ Ma. Neren E. Villalon Researcher ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank the Almighty Father for the blessing of wisdom, patience, and hardwork.We will forever offer all our sacrifices and efforts to Him and without Him, this would never be possible. To our research adviser and mentor, Ms. Marjorie Miguel, we thank you for your guidance and understan ding throughout the second semester, for you have taught us not only the lessons we need to learn in the school, but also the life lessons we have always needed. It is an honor to have you as our adviser. To our loving section, BAMC-1A, this research paper served as our stepping stone in achieving success. Behind the ideas and lessons we put in are also values that we should acquire as future media practitioners of our generation.There are three more years ahead of us, and we hope to have a fruitful future ahead of us. Congratulations for finishing the first chapter of college life. To our family, your support and love will be cherished forever, for without you, we would never achieve everything we have now. Ã¢â¬Å"A hypocrite works only for himself, a man works for the benefit of others; A good man works for the LordÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ABSTRACT Title: Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laborator y High School Researchers: Calara, Jerica MaeMendoza, Justine Mary Robert Navalta, Erl Chak S. J. Panti, Jeaneth D. P. Villalon, Maria Neren E. Research Adviser: Ms. Marjorie Miguel Due to the evolution of the fast-paced world, a more graphic violence is exhibited in media, which gravely affected the psychological development of the children and adolescents, causing them to acquire a more distinct and aggressive behavior towards other people. OBJECTIVE In this research, the group aims to provide sufficient information to educate people about the harms of exposure to media violence to the psychological development of an individual.This would only be possible if people would really understand how important it is to guide their children properly. Furthermore, the researchers would like to promote a child-friendly media that would mold children into productive and morally-shaped professionals in the future. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cover Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Scope and Delimitation of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CHAPTER 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Review of Related Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Review of Related Literature Local Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Foreign Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Review of Related StudiesLocal Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Fo reign Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Hypotheses of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 CHAPTER 3 Methods and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Appendices Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 ExpertsÃ¢â¬â¢ Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Interview Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Curriculum Vitae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Violence is never new to the society, and it is constantly alarming because it greatly affects the development of a child.Whenever a person manifests any form of violence to a child, he imitates it in such a way that they think it is right, causing him to commit youthful crime. According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), there are more than 2,600 juvenile delinquency cases reported in 2009. A year later, the number reduced to 1,200. However, DSWD claims that there are still many unreported cases in the country (Diaz, 2011). Statistics on crime incidents from the Ph ilippine National Police from January to August 2011 showed that crimes committed by children account for only 2. % (or 3,856) of the 176,703 reported crimes, as against the remaining 172,847 committed by adults. It goes to show that many children committed crime and had exhibited aggressive and negative behavior towards people, and one of the causes of this inexcusable behavior is exposure to violence. Ten things every juvenile court judge should know about trauma and delinquency. The majority of youth who develop a pattern of delinquent behaviors and experience subsequent juvenile court involvement have faced both serious adversities and traumatic experiences.Research continues to show that most youth who are detained in juvenile detention centers have been exposed to both community and family violence and many have been threatened with, or been the direct target of, such violence (Abram et al. , 2004; Wiig, Widom, & Tuell, 2003). Studies also demonstrate that youth who have multi ple exposures to violence or victimization are at higher risk for mental health problems, behavioral problems, substance abuse, and delinquent behaviors (Ford, Chapman, Hawke, & Albert, 2007; Ford, Elhai, Connor, & Frueh, in press; Saunders, Williams, Smith, & Hanson, 2005; Tuell, 2008). Any form of violence gravely deteriorates the psychological well-being of a child. That is why it is noted that the main focus in on one of the factors that affects the psychological development of an individual, and that is media violence. Exposure to any form of violence may contribute to the behavioral patterns of growing individuals especially to those who have witnessed it throughout their lives, which is now possible with television as the fastest portal of learning and violence. According to some, you are what you watch when it comes to violence in the media and its influence on violent behavior in young people.The research published in February 2009 in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, s hows that even when other factors are considered, such as academic skills, encounters with community violence, or emotional problems, Ã¢â¬Å"childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggressionÃ¢â¬ in the study subjects (Buffington, et. al. ,2011). Media Violence Ã¢â¬â Introduction The debate over media violence has eluded definitive answers for more than three decades. At first blush, the debate is dominated by one questionÃ¢â¬âwhether or not media violence actually causes real-life violence.But closer examination reveals a political battle. On the one hand, there are those who blame media violence for societal violence and want to censor violent content to protect children. On the other hand are those who see regulation as the slippery slope to censorship or a smokescreen hiding the root causes of violence in society. One thing is certain: the issue of media violence is not going away. Increasing ly the debate is focusing on the Ã¢â¬Å"culture of violence,Ã¢â¬ and on the normalization of aggression and lack of empathy in our society. Media Violence ResearchResearch into the media and violenceÃ examines whether links between consumingÃ mediaÃ violence and subsequent aggressive andÃ violentÃ behavior exists. Although someÃ social scientistsÃ support this link, methodological and theoretical problems with the existing literature limit interpretation of findings in this area. There is concern among some scholars that media researchers may have exaggerated effects (Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009; Freedman, 2002; Pinker 2002; Savage, 2004). These effects, such as aggression and patterns of violent behaviors are believed to be interrelated with visual representations of violence.Complaints about the possible deleterious effects of mass media appear throughout history, evenÃ PlatoÃ was concerned about the effects of plays on youth. Various media/genres, includingÃ d ime novels,Ã comic books,Ã jazz,Ã rock and roll,Ã role playing/computer gamesÃ and many others have attracted speculation that consumers of such media may become more aggressive, rebellious or immoral. This has led some scholars to conclude statements made by some researchers merely fit into a cycle of media-based moral panics (e. g. Gauntlett, 1995; Trend, 2007; Kutner & Olson, 2008).The advent ofÃ televisionÃ prompted research into the effects of this new medium in the 1960s. Much of research has been guided byÃ social learning theoryÃ developed byÃ Albert Bandura. Social learning theory suggests that one way in which human beingsÃ learnÃ is by the process of modeling. Through the videos, movies, clips, episodes, and even shows, violence is manifested in media that is why children tend to imitate aggressive behaviors. Their minds create an interpretation which could be later on seen on their actions.These actions tend to shape them into violent individuals. From time to time, intellectual investigation and analysis about the effects of media violence and aggression to the psychological development of a child are being examined harmful influence of television violence and on how to create a child-friendly media that will help the parents mold their children into morally- shaped individuals. The researchers intend to apply the concepts of psychology in defining and explaining such terms that will justify the effects of media violence on the well-being of a child.It is also necessary to use medical terms that will support the statements presented in this research, which will be explained further. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There are many effects of exposure to media violence which influence the psychological well-being of a child. This study intends to investigate these effects, particularly to high school students in Malolos, Bulacan. This study is made to give answers and clarifications on the following questions: In general, the questio n is, Ã¢â¬Å"How does media violence, especially on television, affect the psychological development of a child? 1. How does viewing violence on television actually foster aggressive behavior? 2. Is the association of exposure to television violence with the aggressive behavior causal? (Is violent television directly causing aggressive behavior? ) 3. 1 Significant Association of Media Violence to Aggression 3. 2 Media Violence and the Increasing Rate of Youthful Crime 3. 3 Psychological Risks and Setbacks of Exposure to Media Violence 3. What should be the precautions and measures that should be applied in order to create a child-friendly media? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYConsidering all the aspects of this research, the main goal is to educate people and also the respondents about the harmful effects of media violence to the psychological well-being of a child. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the researchers to provide essential information about the psychological influences of exposure to media violence and aggression. Mass Communication Students. As future media practitioners, it is essential for them to promote a child-friendly media to its viewers because media is one of the factors of human development, moreover, in the psychological aspect of an individual.Students. This research would help students realize the disadvantages of patronizing shows which use media violence as a source of entertainment, and on how should they avoid watching it. Teachers and School Administrators. As mentors, this research would help them create a teaching strategy that will mold and guide students as they develop to mature professionals. Parents. It is the responsibility of the parents to guide their children in watching television programs. That is why they would gain information and explanations from this research that will help them guide their children properly. Readers.This intellectual output aims to provide readers with sufficient knowledge and understanding a bout the effects of media violence to the psychological well-being of a child. This would help them be informed not only about the harmful effects but also their responsibilities as viewers. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS There are several factors that should be considered in determining how media violence affects children and adolescents, but the researchers paid more attention in analyzing how media violence, especially on television, affects the psychological well-being of children and teenagers, particularly high school students.The scope of this research applies to Bulacan State University Laboratory High School students at Malolos City, Bulacan, for the school year 2011-2012. DEFINITION OF TERMS Mass Communication- refers to a scholarly study of mass media, its various forms and effects to people. Mass Media- refers collectively to allÃ mediaÃ technologiesÃ that are intended to reach a large audience viaÃ mass communication (Wikipedia) Development- refers to the progress achi eved by an individual which, in this research, pertains to the psychological development Psychology- the study of theÃ mind, occurring partly via the study ofÃ behavior (Wikipedia).Violence- refers to the aggressive behaviors portrayed by the characters seen on television Students- refers to the high school students of Bulacan State University Laboratory High School (Unless given specification, e. g. Mass Communication Students) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This study was based in the previous investigations and experiments made by analysts and psychologists in determining the probable causes and effects of media violence exposure. According to Andrea Martinez (1994), most studies support Ã¢â¬Å"a positive, though weak, relation between exposure to television violence and aggressive behaviour. Although that relationship cannot be Ã¢â¬Å"confirmed systematically,Ã¢â¬ she agrees with Dutch researcher Tom Van der Voot who argues that it would be illogical to conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"a phenomenon does not exist simply because it is found at times not to occur, or only to occur under certain circumstances. Ã¢â¬ More investigations took place to prove the relation of aggressive behavior to children and adolescents. They even conclude that there are several factors that affect the relationship of television violence to adolescents such as violent music lyrics.In 2003, Craig Anderson and Iowa State University colleague Nicholas Carnagey and Janie Eubanks of the Texas Department of Human Services reported that violent music lyrics increased aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings among 500 college students. They concluded, Ã¢â¬Å"There are now good theoretical and empirical reasons to expect effects of music lyrics on aggressive behavior to be similar to the well-studied effects of exposure to TV and movie violence and the more recent research efforts on violent video games. Ã¢â¬Å"It is implied that violent music lyrics act as their Ã¢â¬ Å"opiumÃ¢â¬ , for when teenagers listen to such music, it tends to make them feel more aggressive, creating different feelings and thoughts. In 1960, University of Michigan Professor Leonard Eron studied 856 grade three students living in a semi-rural community in Columbia County, New York, and found that the children who watched violent television at home behaved more aggressively in school. Eron wanted to track the effect of this exposure over the years, so he revisited Columbia County in 1971, when the children who participated in the 1960 study were 19 years of age.He found that boys who watched violent TV when they were eight were more likely to get in trouble with the law as teenagers. When Eron and Huesmann returned to Columbia County in 1982, the subjects were 30 years old. They reported that those participants who had watched more violent TV as eight-year-olds were more likely, as adults, to be convicted of serious crimes, to use violence to discipline their children, and to treat their spouses aggressively. Studies show that violent behaviors, just like any other behavior can be seen through years and can still be observed even for a long period of time.Professor Monroe Lefkowitz published similar findings in 1971. Lefkowitz interviewed a group of eight-year-olds and found that the boys who watched more violent TV were more likely to act aggressively in the real world. When he interviewed the same boys ten years later, he found that the more violence a boy watched at eight, the more aggressively he would act at age eighteen. Columbia University professor Jeffrey Johnson has found that the effect is not limited to violent shows. Johnson tracked 707 families in upstate New York for 17 years, starting in 1975.In 2002, Johnson reported that children who watched one to three hours of television each day when they were 14 to 16 years old were 60 per cent more likely to be involved in assaults and fights as adults than those who watched less TV. Kansas St ate University professor John Murray concludes, Ã¢â¬Å"The most plausible interpretation of this pattern of correlations is that early preference for violent television programming and other media is one factor in the production of aggressive and antisocial behavior when the young boy becomes a young man. Ã¢â¬ People often use the phrase that Ã¢â¬Å"children are impressionable. It means that children do not see the world through the same filter of experience that adults do. Children see things more literally. They do not yet possess the sophisticated sensibilities to distinguish fiction from reality. It matters a great deal, therefore, how much TV children watch and what they view. The effects of media violence on children have been studied for over thirty years, with researchers repeatedly finding correlations between aggressive/violent behavior and the viewing of media violence. These education and psychology researchers began asserting years ago that a cause-and-effect relatio nship existed, i. . , viewing media violence was one of the causative factors in aggressive behavior in children. REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES Exposure to such quantities of violent depictions damages youth and contributes to violence in real life. In particular, television violence promotes aggression, teaches the youth that violence is an acceptable solution to problems, and fosters a fearful attitude by leading viewers to think that the world is more violent than it really is. Here are the theories that will explain the influences of television violence to the youth: Cultivation TheoryCultivation Theory focuses more on how people attitudes are impacted by the media, rather than just behaviors. One of the findings of this research is that when people are exposed to heavy media violence, they seem to have an attitudinal misconception called Ã¢â¬Å"mean world syndromeÃ¢â¬ . This means that they overestimate how much violence actually occurs in their communities and the rest of the w orld. While on the other hand, people who are exposed to less media violence have a more realistic sense of the amount of violence in the real world.Social Learning Theory Media affects theories in modern times originated with Albert Bandura's social learning theory, which suggests that children may learn aggression from viewing others. Modeling of behavior was observed in Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiments. He showed children a video of a model beating up a Bobo doll and then put the children in a room with a Bobo doll to see if he/she would imitate the behavior previously seen on the video. The findings of this experiment suggest that children tended to model the behavior they witnessed in the video.This has been often taken to imply that children may imitate aggressive behaviors witnessed in media. Catharsis Theory Catharsis is a Greek word meaning Ã¢â¬Å"cleansingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"purgingÃ¢â¬ . It has been described as a Ã¢â¬Å"purificationÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"purgingÃ¢â¬ of su ch emotions. Many directors and producers of violent media claim that their products are cathartic. For example, Alfred Hitchcock, director of the movie Psycho, said, Ã¢â¬Å"One of television's greatest contributions is that it brought murder back into the home where it belongs. Seeing a murder on television can be good therapy.It can help work off one's antagonism. Ã¢â¬ More recently, in 1992, Paul Verhoeven, director of the movie Total Recall, said, Ã¢â¬Å"I think it's a kind of purifying experience to see violence. Ã¢â¬ Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theories build upon social learning theory, but suggest that aggression may be activated by learning and priming aggressive scripts. Desensitization is also included in latter social cognitive theories. For example in one recent study, a sample of college students was assigned at random to play either a violent or non-violent video game for 20 minutes.They were then asked to watch a 10 minute video of real life violen ce. The students who had played the violent video games were observed to be significantly less affected by the simulated aggressive act than those who didn't play the violent video games. Moral Panic Theory Clarified by David Gauntlett this theory postulates that concerns about new media are historical and cyclical. Society forms a predetermined negative belief about a new media. Research studies and statements by scholars and politicians are designed to confirm the pre-existing belief, rather than objectively study the issue with care.Ultimately the panic dies out after several years or even decades, but ultimately resurfaces when yet another new form of media is introduced. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE LOCAL LITERATURE Cultures of corruption and of violence in society are close cousins, if not twins. They are intertwined. Where there is corruption, there is violence, and vice versa. Violence is a symptom of a corrupt mind or society, and corruption is violence against fellow human beings and society (Chua, 2010). Children through their adolescent stage are great imitators.Television violence surfaced the minds of our teenagers though it brings negative effects- for adolescents search for their role model during their formative years. In the Philippines, where almost every household had televisions, violence is rampant. Philippine Television Scenario: * 93% of Filipino children have access to television. * Television shows consist of 10,000 rape, assaults and murder scenes each year. * Teenage boys who watch television more than an hour are more likely to commit violent acts than those who watch less than an hour.With the influence of television that results to violence, the United Nations classified Philippines as a high aggression areaÃ¢â¬âan environment promoting aggressive behavior. It is said that exposure to adult programs eliminates childhood. (Tan, 1994) concluded that before, learning is difficult and dependent, but now, the youth easily learn abo ut adult behavior through TV programs. If they are required by law to wait until they are old enough to drive, likewise, they need to wait for the right age to watch TV.Television may not be as detrimental for teenagers or for adults, as it is for the young ones. With this statistics, Sen. Manuel Villar Jr. has filed a bill banning the broadcast of programs that contain scenes considered extremely violent for children during daytime. Senate Bill 2441 mandates the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB) and the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) to establish rules for blocking violent programs during daytime. Television has been taken for granted, as it becomes the fastest portal of violence. Teenagers feel vulnerable and less protected.Teenagers are exposed to increasingly higher doses of aggressive images. Violence among youth is also on the rise, making it plausible to correlate the two, even though we believe that the primary causes for aggressive b ehavior in children are to be found in their family environment, and the social and economic conditions in which they are raised. Television violence merges with reality. FOREIGN LITERATURE Learning violence has no exception. It can be imitated in the same manner as how the alphabet was committed to memory (Walker, 2010). In a study conducted by Dr.Jo Groebel of Utrecht University from 1996-1997, it was confirmed the dominant role of television in the everyday lives of children around the globe: 93% of the students who attend school and live in electrified urban or rural areas have regular access to television and watch it for an average of three hours a day. This represents at least 50% more than the time spent on any other out of school activity, including homework, being with friends, or reading. The result justifies the assumption that television is the most powerful source of information and entertainment besides face-to-face interaction.It is concluded that the introduction of television in the 1950s caused a subsequent doubling of the homicide rate, i. e. , long-term childhood exposure to television is a causal factor behind approximately one half of the homicides committed in the United States, or approximately 10 000 homicides annually. Although the data are not as well developed for other forms of violence, they indicate that exposure to television is also a causal factor behind a major proportion-perhaps one half-of rapes, assaults, and other forms of interpersonal violence in the United States (Centerwall, 1992)Fig 1. Ã¢â¬â This series of photographs shows a 14-month old boy learning behavior from a television set. In photograph A, the adult pulls apart a novel toy. The infant leans forward and carefully studies the adult's actions. In photograph B, the infant is given the toy. In photograph C, the infant pulls the toy apart, imitating what he had seen the adult do. Of infants exposed to the instructional video, 65% could later work the toy, as compared with 20% of unexposed infants.Just like BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment on how children learn and adapts violence, the figure shows how easily a toddler mimics a personality on a television. To present how television violence manifests in the youthÃ¢â¬â¢s daily lives, Arnold SchwarzeneggerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËTerminatorÃ¢â¬â¢ is a global icon, known by 88% of the children surveyed, be they from India, Brazil or Japan. Asked to name their favorite role models, boys most frequently named an action hero. 51% of the children from war or high-crime environments wish to be like him, as compared to 37% in the low-aggression neighborhoods.This only means that teenagers tend to mimic the shows they have seen on television. In 1990, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement that Pediatricians should advise parents to limit their children's television viewing to 1 to 2 hours per day. Nowadays, the youth perceives television as a factual source of information about a wor ld outside their homes but the truth is this is where violence is a daily commonplace. But violence, according to Centerwall in 1992, is generally powerful, exciting, charismatic, and efficacious. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIESLOCAL STUDIES One of the findings was half of the Filipino programs contain violent incident (excluding news casts). Moreover, it indicated that violence would likely occur in these kinds of television programs: 1. Action/Adventure 2. Drama/Sitcoms 3. Variety Shows 4. MTV (Music Television) Exposure to this kind of television programs lead to several problematic outcomes. Aggression Adolescents in middle school and high school are much more likely than younger children to doubt the reality of television content and much less likely to identify with television characters.The small percentages of those who continue to believe in the reality of television and to identify with its violent heroes are the only ones likely to be more aggressive, especially if they continu e to fantasize about aggressive-heroic themes. Desensitization Desensitization is indicated by lower empathy or sympathy. Media violence has also been shown to desensitize youth to violence. Trauma and Victimization Media violence also leads to fear and a feeling of victimization.In one study, 75% of high school students reported media violence at moderate to high levels, and 10% sought to counseling due to nightmares, anxiety, and fear associated with media violence. FOREIGN STUDIES Bobo Doll Experiment The Bobo doll experiment was the name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 studying patterns of behavior associated with aggression. He hoped that the experiments would prove that aggression can be explained, at least in part, by social learning theory. The theory of social learning would state that behavior such as aggression is learned through observing and imitating others.He showed children a video of a model beating up a Bobo doll and then put the chi ldren in a room with a Bobo doll to see if he/she would imitate the behavior previously seen on the video. The findings of this experiment suggest that children tended to model the behavior they witnessed in the video. This has been often taken to imply that children may imitate aggressive behaviors witnessed in media. In his book, The 11 Myths of Media, James Potter shares what he believes to be the short term effects and long term effects of media. Short-Term Effects . Imitation and Copying Behavior Children and adults mimic and incorporate a behavior they have seen a character in media perform. 2. Desensitization Media can reduce our emotional reactions. It breaks down viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resistance to killing. 3. Temporary Fear Violent media can produce intense fright reactions. Fright is an immediate emotional response and is composed of anxiety, distress, and increased physiological arousal that are frequently engendered in viewers as a result of exposure to specific types of media productions.Long-Term Effects 1. Aggression 2. Moving the Mean of Society toward More of a Fight Flight Mentality When violence permeates the media year after year in all kinds of programming and when the message of the violence is antisocial (violence is usually justified, successful, and harmless to victims), the mean of society is likely to move gradually to antisocial direction. The society will gradually move towards a fight-flight mentality. The fight component is exhibited by an erosion of inhibitions to behaving in a violent manner.The flight component is exhibited by a gradual increase in generalized fear along with an erosion of sympathy for victims of violence. 3. Thinking of Being Victims of a Crime 4. Accepting Violence Easily CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Fig. 2 Ã¢â¬â Through an input, process, and output cycle, the researchers defined the relationship of media violence linked to aggression. When children are exposed to media violence at an early age, their mind cr eates an interpretation that is why they imitate any aggressive behavior shown to them. Through this, aggression is manifested. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDYFrom the information gathered by the researchers in determining the probable effects of exposure to media violence to the psychological development of an individual, hypotheses are formulated. These are based on the findings of this research and will be proved later on. 1. Through media violence manifested on television, aggressive behaviors are acquired as a child interprets what he sees on the character. Children tend to imitate what they see on television that is why it becomes a habit when they are exposed in this form of violence. By this, the child learns to act in the same behavior as what he sees. 2.Proper development of the psychological being of a child is at risk, especially of teenagers because they are on their adolescence stageÃ¢â¬âa stage of development and preparation for adulthood. What they see and learn in their childhood such as violence, might lead to execution of violent acts acquired in their adulthood, leading to more serious behavioral problems. Without the proper guidance, they might constantly develop into a violent person. 3. One characteristic of a child is being impressionable, that is why they directly imitate the acts they see on television. From this, aggressive behavior could be achieved. . Young children often mimic what they see. Older children develop, through years of watching, sub-conscious mental plans of how they will react in conflict situations. For years they have seen conflicts resolved by violence, and they sub-consciously develop the same reaction plan. When confronted with a conflict, the tendency is to react the way they have seen countless others reactÃ¢â¬âin a combative, aggressive or violent manner. 5. By reducing their time in watching, accompanied by proper guidance and explanation, they could reduce the tendency of a child to acquire violent behavior. 6.Television is the most efficient and the fastest portal of learning and acquiring knowledge. Children watching television without proper guidance gives their own explanation to what they have watched. In such manner, they tend to grow and bear in mind their wrong interpretation of violence. CHAPTER III METHODS OF RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Descriptive Method The researchers applied the descriptive or statistical method that will describe the data and characteristics of the population intended in this research. Through this, the researchers also used the survey method as a technique in defining the data gathered and presented.Survey Method The survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. This method assesses the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view through series of questions intellectually formulated to satisfy the needed information in this research. This is conducted in a group of students from Bulacan State University Laboratory High School. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Th e researchers used questionnaires distributed to the students, consisting of closed-ended questions. AÃ closed-ended questionÃ is a question format that provides respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choice to answer the question.The group also formulated interview guide consisting of series of questions that will help in directing the conversation towards the topics and issues presented in this research. Through these instruments, the researchers will gather the data needed in order to provide the results needed in this research. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, C. A. , and Bushman, B. J. (2002). The effects of media violence on society. Science, 295, 2377-2378. Appendix 4-B violence in the media and its effect on youth violence. (1999). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved February 25, 2012, from http://www. urgeongeneral. gov/library/youthviolence/chapter4/appendix4b. html Centerwall, B. S. (1992, June 10). Television and Violence: The Sca le of the Problem and Where to Go From Here. Retrieved from http://cursor. org/stories/television_and_violence. htm Chua, P. S. (2010, August 30). Heart to heart talk: violence on television. Cebu Daily News, Retrieved from http://globalnation. inquirer. net/cebudailynews/opinion/view/20100830-289558/Violence-on-television Frazier, B. (n. d). The impact of tv violence on children and adolescents. The Successful Parent. Retrieved from http://www. thesuccessfulparent. om/children-and-media/the-impact-of-tv-violence-on-children-and-adolescents Grobel, J. (1997). Media and violence study. Retrieved from http://www. ppu. org. uk/education/mediaviolencesurvey-c. html Johnson, J. G. , et al. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science,Ã 295, 2468-2471. Media awareness network. (2010, July 8). Violence in Media Entertainment. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. ca/english/issues/violence/violence_entertainment. cfm Media violence Ã¢ â¬â introduction. (2010). Media Awareness Network. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. a/english/issues/violence/ Media violence and behavior. (n. d). LimiTV. Retrieved from http://www. limitv. org/aggression. htm Research on the effects of media violence. (2010). Media Awareness Network. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. ca/english/issues/violence/effects_media_violence. cfm Rick Nauert PhD. (2008). Media violence linked to aggression. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral. com/news/2008/11/20/media_violence_linked_to_aggression/3379. html Violence kills tv. (1998, December 1). Science Go Go. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://www. scienceagogo. com/news/19981101145024data_trunc_sys. html Shah, S. A. A. (2008). Children and media violence. Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/30841039/Media-Research-Children-and-Media-Violence Short and long term media effects. (2012). The New Media Foundation. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://www. the newmedia-foundation. org/media/valus. php Sy, M. (2011, April 19). Villar calls for ban on tv programs too violent for kids. The Philippine Star, Retrieved from http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=677908&publicationSubCategoryId= Tan, B. C. (1994). Tv is not for children. Retrieved from http://www. rstep. org. ph/reading2. tm Violence, media (position paper). (2004). AAFP. Retrieved from http://www. aafp. org/online/en/home/policy/policies/v/violencemedia. html APPENDICES QUESTIONNAIRES BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 Provided in this questionnaire are personal questions. Please answer all the questions honestly. Shade the circle provided before the choices. -The Insiders Provided in this questionnaire are personal questions. Please answer all the questions honestly. Shade the circle provided before the choices. -The Insiders BASIC INFORMATION: Name: ______________________________________Year and Section:___________________________ __ Age: ____ Gender: __________ Address:_____________________________________ ____________________________________________ Contact No. : __________________________________ 1. During your childhood years, how many hours a day did you spend in watching television? * 1-2 hours * 3-4 hours * 5-7 hours * Others (Please specify. ):_______ 2. Which of the following programs did you often watch before? * Sineskwela * Math-tinik * Hiraya Manawari * Teletubbies * Voltes V * Daimos * Power Rangers * Tom and Jerry 3. Do your parents prevent you from watching programs that show violence? Yes * No 4. As an adolescent, how many hours a day do you spend in watching? * 1-2 hours * 3-4 hours * 5-7 hours * Others (Please specify. ):_______ FOLLOW- UP QUESTION: Do your parents still prevent you from watching programs that promote violence? * Yes * No 5. What kind of programs do you prefer? * Drama * Comedy * Action * Others (Please specify. ) : __________________ 6. Do you often watch alone? * Yes * No 7. Which of the following programs did you often watch before? * Matanglawin * KapÃ¢â¬â¢s Amazing Stories * Pinoy Explorer * IJuander * City Hunter * Iris * Valiente * Regal Shocker 8.Do you think it is beneficial for you to patronize programs with violent scenes? * Yes * No 9. Do you think that exposure to media violence could cause a child to be aggressive? * Yes * No 10. What is your reaction after seeing violence on television? * Pleased- happy, contented * Terrified- scared, frightened * Not Contented- wanting more * Annoyed- disturbed, irritated LETTERS BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 185 Sapphire Street, Brgy. Perez, Bulakan, Bulacan, Phils. March 22, 2012 Mr. Angel C. Caparas High School Principal Bulacan State University- Laboratory High SchoolCity of Malolos, Bulacan Dear Mr. Caparas: We, a group of Mass Communication students from the College of Arts and Letters, are in the process of accomplishing our research paper in a study enti tled, Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School. Ã¢â¬ We would like to request for your permission in order for us to conduct our survey in the campus. The students would be the respondents of our study. This would be of great help in our research. Rest assured that we will take charge in this survey.We are hoping for your cooperation. Yours Sincerely, Erl Chak S. J. Navalta Group Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 Santa Maria, Bulacan March 22, 2012 Dr. Agnes Crisostomo Psychology Professor College of Social Science and Philosophy Bulacan State University Dear Madam: We, the students of Bulacan State University-College of Arts and Letters will be conducting a study entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- La boratory High School. This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course English 123-Communication Arts 2 thesis proposal. In this regard, we respectfully request for your participation to be the subject of our study. We would assure that any information gathered would be handled properly and with strict confidentiality. Thank you very much! Yours truly, ________________________ Justine Mary Robert A. Mendoza Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters School Year 2011 004 Tabon Malis, Guiguinto, Bulacan March 22, 2012 Lolita S. P. Santos Social WorkerCity Social Welfare and Development Malolos Bulacan Dear Mrs. Santos Greetings! We, the Mass Communication students of Bulacan State University, are humbly requesting to your office to allow us to conduct an interview that will give us pertinent information regarding on behavioral aspects of youth and juvenile delinquency here in Bulacan, particularly in the city of Malolos. The said information will s uffice to our thesis proposal entitled Ã¢â¬Å" Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School. Ã¢â¬ Rest assured that all information will remain confidential and shall be used only for the said thesis proposal. We are looking forward to your kindest cooperation and consideration. Yours truly, __________________ Jeaneth D. P. Panti Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters School Year 2011 754 Kabilang Bacood, Sta. Rita, Guiguinto, Bulacan March 22, 2012 High School Students Laboratory High School Bulacan State University Dear Respondents: Greetings! We are the Insiders, a group of first year Mass Communication students from the College of Arts and Letters are currently writing our research proposal.We are kindly asking for you to answer the following questions that will be vital to the completion of this proposal. Rest assured that all information will rem ain confidential and shall be used only for the said thesis proposal. We are looking forward to your kindest cooperation and consideration. Yours truly, __________________ Jerica Mae S. P. Calara Researcher EXPERTSÃ¢â¬â¢ PROFILES PERSONAL PROFILE Name: Lolita S. P. Santos Address: Malolos Bulacan E-mail address: lolitasantos. [emailÃ protected] com Age: 23 Gender: female Nationality: Filipino Place of birth: Bulacan Civil status: marriedReligion: Catholic EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City Secondary: Holy Spirit Academy Malolos Bulacan PROFESSION Currently serving as a social worker at the City Social Welfare and Development here at Malolos Bulacan, which provides social programs especially to indigenous families in Malolos, provides livelihood projects, child labor programs and other social services that caters the welfare of the people PERSONAL PROFILE Name: Agnes Del Rosario Crisostomo Address: Malolos, Bulacan E-mail address: [emailÃ protected] om Age: 40 Gender: Female Nationality: Filipino Place of birth: Paombong, Bulacan Civil status: Married Religion: Catholic EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary 2009PhD in Psychology University of the Philippines 2005MA in Psychology University of the Philippines 1987BA Psychology University of the Philippines (Diliman) Secondary Paombong High School PROFESSION 4th year Associate Professor in Bulacan State University Employee at Women of Malolos Foundation Incorporation INTERVIEW GUIDE Questions: 1. How much education did you have to go through to become a (field)? 2.Is there a significant relationship between exposure to television violence and aggressive behavior? 3. Is this relationship causal? 4. How does it impact teenagers? 5. Are there any psychological problems that can be caused by television? 6. Why do you think television violence is bad for teenagers? Or why do you think it is okay to let them watch? 7. Do you think the effects of television violence are v ery serious to the teenagers today? Why? 8. What do you think their behavior would be? 9. In your opinion, what ages are safe to watch television violence? 10. Is there anything wrong with letting a young child watch TV? 1. What do you think about always keeping teenagers away from television so that they can not watch violent television programs or shows? 12. Can teenagers adjust good and bad side of violent television programs or shows themselves? Why? CURRICULUM VITAE JERICA MAE SAN PEDRO CALARA 754 Kabilang Bacood, Sta. Rita, Guiguinto, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09157990046 Telephone Number: Email Address: jericamae. [emailÃ protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Jerica, JM Status:Single Birth Date:May 24, 1995 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDTertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Secondary Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos Sta . Isabel, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 JUSTINE MARY ROBERT AQUINO MENDOZA 277 N. Mendoza St. , San Gabriel, Sta. Maria, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09179917850 Telephone Number: (044) 641-03-77 Email Address: [emailÃ protected] om PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Justine Status:Single Birth Date:February 26, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Secondary Saint Paul College of Bocaue Bocaue, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16 , 2012 ERL CHAK SAN JOSE NAVALTA 85 Sapphire St. Perez, Bulakan, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09274308912 Telephone Number: (044) 668-74-93 Email Address: [emailÃ protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Erl, Chak Status:Single Birth Date:October 14, 1995 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Secondary Immaculate Conception School for Boys Second Year- Fourth Year Poblacion, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2008 Ã¢â¬â 2011 Assumpta Academy First YearSan Jose, Bulakan, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2008 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 Pandayang Lino Brocka Valencia Hall Bulacan State University 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 JEANETH DELA PAZ PANTI 004, Tabon Malis, Guiguinto, Bulaca n Mobile Number: 09351860944 Telephone Number: N. A. Email Address: [emailÃ protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Jeaneth Status:Single Birth Date:September 12, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer LiterateEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Secondary Guiguinto National Vocational High School Guiguinto, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 Pandayang Plaridel BSU Hostel Bulacan State University Pandayang Lino Brocka Valencia Hall Bulacan State University 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 MA. NEREN ENRIQUEZ VILLALON 611, Calle Hagonoy St. San Pablo, City of Malolos, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09066250818 Telephone Number: (044) 760-75-68 Email Address: [emailÃ protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Neren Status:Single Birth Date:September 4, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Secondary Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos Sta. Isabel, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Developing A Marketing Plan for a New Product - Essay Example Overseas we also not only have the same competitors we have here, but other local competitors, such as the great candy makers in Switzerland for example. All of these factors have to be taken into consideration. Especially important is the local ideals of a region when running advertisement, as we need to be sure to not run an ad that could be considered offensive in another country. Of course our produce is very tangible, and we hope to be short lived. We are not intending people to buy our product and hold on to them, we want them to eat them so they in turn come back to buy more. We would hope for an as much as possibly purchase, similar to the candy isle you see here. Then people would buy them whenever they caught their eye, and would be instantly attracted to them. We also need to totally market our product as different and more healthy than other alternatives. This is key to success in the important demographics that we need in order to clench success for our company. Once we factor in cost and demand, we will hopefully be able to find a stable price. We do not want price to high or to low, or we may find demand fluctuating to much for our needs. Our objective is to be as successful as possible, but we may need to take initial losses to do that.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Working Conditions - Research Paper Example This paper will specifically focus on safety standards employed at meatpacking industry across USA, which has mostly labored low waged immigrant and undocumented workers. Indeed, the number of rising accidents and injury rates has compelled policy-makers and pundits to formulate and implement new strategies that would ensure maximum safety of workers employed by meat industry. The author in this paper will analyze various recommendations provided by Human Right Watch institution. Indeed, the author will apply Utilitarian and Deontological business ethics concepts and theoretical frameworks to demonstrate the adequacy and feasibility of different recommendations, aimed to improve workplace practices for greater safety and creation of healthy and secure meatpacking environment. It should be pointed out that OSHA promised from concerned authorities that it would initiate training programs about effective meatpacking cleaning to firms that offer services to US meat and poultry industries. For instance, the concerned authorities and various institutions such as World-Herald also launched investigations to identify weaknesses in currently industry wide implemented practices and procedures. (USA labor Department, 2004) Human Rights Watch, a renowned international welfare institution, also came with relevant recommendations for safety of meat packing workers that will be discussed briefly in this section after they will be evaluated in the light of ethical concepts. The first recommendation was to develop Ã¢â¬Ënew state and federal laws to reduce the speedÃ¢â¬â¢ of automated production lines because workers are unable to adjust themselves in such fast production environment and unable to properly handle sophisticated machinery. In addition, the number of accidents has notably increased over recent years, which is an alarming issue that needs to be tackled at the earliest. Next
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Case study 3C - Assignment Example 3. I guess that people paying for the lottery are mostly aware of the fact that they pay additional taxes if they understand how the state tax system works. Moreover, the amount of money a person pays for a lottery ticket is not that big to create problems for a person spending money on it. The Oregon Lottery was playing on some kind of local patriotism making its customers believe that buying lottery will contribute to the development of the state and this claim was unethical because it was only partially true. 4. Brands often make advertising statements exaggerating things and emphasizing something that is only half true. Oregon Lottery was using a deceitful tool for attracting clients, and their approach can hardly be called ethical. 1. Creative vagueness in statements is utilized to attract customers as in most cases there is a range of brands similar in their characteristics, and it is only advertising that can persuade a customer choose one product over another. However, if the information about the products would be as precise as facts in the news that could be very useful for consumers. 3. The response of Oregon Lottery on the accusation of Politifacts.com was as vague their advertising campaign: they decide to mothball this Ã¢â¬Å"97 percentÃ¢â¬ but claimed that they decided to stick to it nevertheless. It would be more optimal to provide public with facts and figures proving truthfulness of their statements. 1. I suppose that lottery can easily serve as a means of support of public education as any other legal business. The only thing is that consumers must be fully aware how much and why they are paying for. 2. An ethical campaign for a local lottery must first of all use truthful statements in advertising campaign. The possibility of financial profit can serve as a motto for the company as it is its primary goal. Moreover, the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Business Culture of Albania and Italy - Essay Example The researcher states that language is regarded as an important part of business dealings as communication is the backbone of successful business negotiations. In case of Albania, it has been found that most government officials speak English, but the same thing cannot be said about people employed in the private sector. Use of interpreters or translators is a commonplace business practice. In case of Italy, English is also the most commonly spoken foreign language. In Italy, use of body language is as important as hand gestures and personal contacts are as dominant as speech. Avoiding excessive use of body language may be considered as an unfriendly attitude, which can, therefore, harm the business. This practice is not found in Albania. Given the difference in the official language of the two countries, need for translators will be inevitable to carry business if English is not spoken. In this case, it can be stated that misinterpretations of non-verbal gestures like, hand gestures , may act as severe intercultural communication barrier between Italy and Albania as Italians tend to use more such gestures. It has been observed that time is not considered to be an important parameter in case of Albania, but is quite important for Italy. Punctuality has been regarded as an important parameter in inter-cultural business. This is because punctuality has the notable influence on the social behavior. It is noticed that Italians expect a formal explanation if there is any delay in the business meeting and such a habit is condemnable. However, the social attitude of people in Albania makes punctuality an obsolete requirement. So, in case of business dealings between companies of these countries, it is important for the Albanians to be more particular about the time factor. Ã
Sunday, August 25, 2019
How Sexuality is Simultaneously a Personal, Social, Structural, Historical and Culturally Specific - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"Children sent the wrong message about sexÃ¢â¬ by Ann Whittaker, dated 6 June 2006, published in Western Morning News (Plymouth), this paper seeks to examine how sexuality is simultaneously a personal social, structural, historical and culturally specific. The paper will discuss how society views these young people and attitudes towards their sexuality. The language used when discussing the context of their sexuality along with the role of sex education and the role of family and society will be discussed. Hormonal changes and social attitudes are key drivers of sexuality. For many young people, sex is something that excites them and an area they wish to explore. The sexual behavior of adults to influences children. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s teenagers and children are aware that many adults have sex outside marriage and are often not committed to a single partner. They take a cue from such behavior and believe that it is alright to lead a promiscuous life. (BBC) Driven by advertising images, social communication and other inputs on sexual behavior, young minds are keen to experiment with sex. All the articles accept that social values are fast changing. In the contemporary society, it is generally accepted that young people are likely to indulge in sexual activity before marriage and in sex without commitment. However, the writers of these articles seem to view children and teenagers as vulnerable and immature. While they understand that sexual behavior is an issue of personal choice, as a society they express their concern for these young people and the urgent need to take adequate steps to prevent them from indulging in immature and irresponsible sexual behavior that could leave them scarred for life.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Christian Education - Research Paper Example Background/History From the beginning, the gospel has always called Christians to teach and to learn. Teaching is a very important means by which the central message of the Christian faith can be communicated. Individual Christians grow as a part of a community of faith. Ã¢â¬Å"Children grow in the faith by the intentional action of parents, pastors, teachers and other members of the community. Christian educators participate in a God-initiatedÃ¢â¬ (Matthew 28:19-20), Ã¢â¬Å"Spirit-empowered activityÃ¢â¬ (John 14:25-26). The living Word of God works in and through educators as they engage learners in intentional learning activities that fit each learner and are designed to pass on the Faith. In the educational process the Spirit of God encounters the people of God of all ages so that they are nurtured in the faith, grow in knowledge and are inspired and empowered to live as disciples of Jesus Christ, proclaiming the Good News, serving God and others faithfully, and working for peace and justice i n GodÃ¢â¬â¢s world. B. Hypothesis and Arguement In furtherance of his gospel of Ã¢â¬ËintegrationÃ¢â¬â¢, he goes ahead to emphasize the role of the family in forming the minds of children and preparing them for the outside world. In fact, of all the subjects Ken touched upon in his writings, one of the closest to his heart is the family. As one who was brought up by a dedicated mother with no father, he consistently addresses the need for a true Christian home. Leadership in the home was a central theme that runs through his works. His book Ã¢â¬Å"Fathering like the Father: Becoming the dad God wants you to beÃ¢â¬ , sums up his views.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Write a short answer(no more than 600 words) for each of the following three questions after reading The Making Of A Quagmire by David Halberstam - Essay Example On the same note, one can also not help but to notice that crisis unites. In fact, the unrelenting existence of the American soldiers in the pretext of offering reinforcement and support for the Southern Vietnamese who were being attacked by the North, inspired to VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s the need for sovereignty. Moreover, their brutality on the localsÃ¢â¬â¢ property and families further stirred the locals to join hands to drive the common foe away from their territory (p. 12). The fact that they also had a lot at stake compared to the Americans, this made them even more determined to win the struggle. One person in HalberstamÃ¢â¬â¢s the making of quagmire worth mentioning is one Madam Ngo Dinh Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh the South Vietnam leader. Due to her mannerisms and behavior, she earned the title Ã¢â¬Å"dragon ladyÃ¢â¬ . Her ruthlessness and insensitivity is evident in the adoption of an imperious manner and insensitivity as well as uncaring attitude toward anyone or anything outside the ruling family clique. Indeed, majority of the Vietnamese considered her as the sex-dictatress. On a positive note, she can be regarded as a determined woman, who instead of watching her husband and his brother running the country, she is in the forefront of establishing her own female militia, the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Solidarity Movement (p. 32). The book also brings to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s realization that the women behind men in political power are often sources of power themselves. Madame Nhu also seems to portray the picture a hypocritical leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s wife who uses her position to jeopar dize and intimidate the public. In fact, Halberstam (p. 32) indicates that presents that Ã¢â¬Å"there was a cabinet, whose ministers had responsibility but no power and who lived in mortal fear of Madame NhuÃ¢â¬ . An insightful analysis shows that the only party that revealed the truth and was right about the nature of the Vietnam War was the press, Halberstam included. They presented all the fact about the war and even
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Writing the result section of a research paper - Statistics Project Example With regard to the distance walked without an assistive device, the mean distance covered in meters was 283.3 while the mean of the distance covered with an assistive device being 296.63.The mean for VAS 1 was 55.3 while the mean for VAS 2 was 43.43 The question relates to the use of paired sample T-Test and aims to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"Is walking with the device less fatiguing than walking without the device? .This is achieved by comparing the VAS instead of 6 MWT distance. Chart 1 shows the mean differences of VAS. As shown in chart 1, the mean fatigue for the 6MWT distance for subjects without an assistive device is higher (55.0) compared to the one for those with an assistive device (43.43).This result points out that it is less fatiguing to walk with the assistive device because the p value following the paired sample T-test for VAS is significant at 0.00.Again this is below the 0.05 significance level. The second question to be answered is Ã¢â¬Å"Did the subjects walk further with assistive device? and the task also requires the use of a paired sample T-test. A paired sample T-test comparison points out that the mean distance covered with an assistive device is higher compared to that covered with a non assistive device(as shown in table 1). The P value got from the paired sample T-test is 0.03 and it is considered significant for it is below the 0.05 level. The means for distance 1(without an assistive device) and distance 2 (with an assistive device) are 283.30 and 296.63 respectively. The percentage difference of these means is shown in chart 2
My Best Friend, the Homeless Man Essay Buddha once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Instead of judging a man by his appearance, look inside their heart, and read what it is their soul wrote. Ã¢â¬ I was raised in a family, which at times, could be very judgmental of people. My family lived in an upper-class neighborhood where there was no poverty or homelessness. My parents made sure my brother and I had all the best clothes, the newest cell phones and laptops, they spent a lot of money sending us to the best schools on the east coast, our education was very important to them. We both had tutors for different subjects, and my parents required us to take lessons three times a week, on the instrument of our choice. As it would turn out though, the greatest lesson I have ever learned, and the greatest friendship I have ever known, would come from a homeless man and his dog. Although I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know it when I met him, knowing Brent would give me something more valuable than any earthly possession, it would make me a better person. The summer following my senior year of high school was a hectic confusing time in my life. I went from living in a small quiet suburban neighborhood in New Jersey my whole life, to moving to a big, noisy city in Arizona, 3000 miles away from home. It was my first time being on my own away from my family, especially in a place so far from where I lived my whole life. I went from having my parents taking care of me my whole life, to suddenly having to take care of myself. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll never forget how hot it was, summers in New Jersey rarely ever reach over 95 degrees, and that is only on the hottest days of the year. Unlike New Jersey, the first summer I spent in Arizona reached over 125 degrees. It was one of those excruciatingly hot days the day that I met Brent. August was coming to an end, and school was about to start. I had orientation all day and I was exhausted. On my way home from orientation, I realized I needed cigarettes, and since I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know my way around the area very well I stopped at the first place I saw. It was a little liquor store on the corner of 31st Avenue. I pulled into the parking lot and parked my car, that was the first time I saw them. A homeless man was sitting on the curb outside the store, his dog sprawled out nearby in a more shaded area of the parking lot. The dog seemed to be in better shape than its master was. She was a healthy red-nose pit bull, with a beautiful, full coat of fur. The man on the other hand looked dirty like he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t showered in weeks. His clothes were filthy, as was his matted hair, and he looked like he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t eaten in just about as long as he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t showered. As I passed the pit bull to go into the store I noticed that she was wearing shoes on both her back paws. I would later find out that she had been paralyzed in both hind legs during a procedure to get her fixed. Without those special shoes, she would not have been able to walk at all. While I was in the store buying my merchandise, I thought to myself how hot it was outside. I wondered to myself when the last time the dog had eaten was. The homeless, dirty looking man, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look like he had any money to feed himself, never mind his dog, so I bought some dog food and chips for them. I remember thinking to myself, Ã¢â¬Å"What kind of person lives like that? Who would ever be out in public looking so filthy? Ã¢â¬ I knew nothing about this man, yet I judged him at the time, on appearance alone. As I paid for my items I was feeling a little nervous about approaching the man. He was homeless after all, and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get robbed. When I returned outside to give the homeless man the food I had bought for him, his dog approached me and wagged her tail. He thanked me, and threw the can of dog food I had just bought to the dog. To my surprise she picked up the can, and carrying it in her mouth, she walked back to her spot in the shade. I introduced myself, and told him I was new to the area, he said his name was Brent, and the red-nose pit bull was Little Girl. We said our good-byes, and I started on my walk back to my apartment. Since I was new in Arizona, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anyone. I felt really lonely and depressed a lot of the time, and I desperately missed home. Over the next six months, I would see Brent and Little girl almost every day on my walk home from school. I would stop and say hi frequently. Our conversations became longer and longer as the months went on, and eventually Brent became my best friend. I found out that he was in the Navy for 8 years before he got hurt overseas. He started to drink a lot after his injury, and that is why he was homeless, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop drinking. He was from back east like I was; his only family in Arizona was Little Girl. I was right about one thing when I met him, he took better care of her then he did himself. We talked about everything and anything for hours, sometimes he would come over and shower and eat, although he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to do that too much, he had too much pride. I trusted him, and he never did anything to betray that trust. He always encouraged me to stay in school. He would tell me to stay on the right course in life, because one day youÃ¢â¬â¢ll wake up, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re not 21 anymore, your old, and you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t accomplished even half of what you set out to accomplish so many years before. I had the privilege of having Brent and Little Girl in my life for three wonderful years. A couple weeks before Easter, in 2011, Brent caught pneumonia. I called 911 when I saw how sick he was getting, and they took him to the hospital. I sat with him all that night. Brent slipped into a coma early the next morning, and two days after Easter, he was gone. Little Girl passed away only a week after her best friend. Even though I lost the best friend I have ever known, I am thankful for the lessons Brent and Little girl taught me. Never now is there a time I see a homeless man and judge him by his look, I started instead to judge ones soul.