Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Jarrett Barber Mr. Slaughter 11/16/12 Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan was the main city and capital of the Aztec empire. The city was founded in 1325 when the Aztec emperor told some of his tribes to look for a spot for their new capital city. He told them that the spot for the city would be found when they saw an eagle eating a snake on top of a cactus. This symbol is now on the Mexican coat of arms and on the Mexican flag (King). The tribes wondered around in what is now present day Mexico City, looking for this strange site. They finally came to the spot where they saw the scene.It happened on a small island in the middle of Lake Texacco. All of the surrounding area of the lake was all swamp land, but because they saw the eagle there, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where the city was to be built. The construction of Tenochtitlan took place under the rule of four different Aztec kings. They laid out the construction plans for the city on a grid, making the building of the city much easier and run smoothe r. The city was linked to the mainland by three raised causeways; the three different causeways pointed north, west, and south.The raised causeways had bridges in the middle of them to allow canoes and other traffic underneath; the bridges could also be raised up in case of an attack. The city had two aqueducts that were 2. 5 miles long to supply fresh water from the springs of Chapultepec, though most of this water was used for bathing, washing dishes, and other various reasons (Stearns). Most of the Tenochtitlan population bathed twice every day, but ruler Montezuma was rumored to bathe as many as 4 times a day.The people preferred their drinking water from the nearby mountain springs, as it was much cleaner. When it was at its biggest point, Tenochtitlan covered a little more than five square miles. And at the height of its existence, TenochtitlanÃ¢â¬â¢s population was approximately 150,000 people (closely comparable to the size of the population of the city of Cordoba). Tenoch titlan was the largest city in Mesoamerica, but also one of the largest in the world (Tenochtitlan). The only two cities larger than this at the time were Paris and Constantinople which had populations of 300,000.The language of the city was Nahuatl, it was spoken throughout the Aztec empire. The people also practiced Aztec religion, the religion consisted of human sacrifice and religious festivals. Gods of different elements were worshiped and given sacrifices. Human sacrifices were given to the sun god in fear that the sun might not rise the next morning (Stearns). Templo Mayor was the largest temple in Tenochtitlan, it was rebuilt 6 different times (King). The temple first went under construction in 1325, in succession with the rest of the city.Each time it was rebuilt, it grew slightly larger. The temple was dedicated to 2 different gods,Ã Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture, and Huitzilopochtli, god of war. Each god had its own separate temple at the top. In 1427 Aztec empero r Ahuitzotl sacrificed tens of thousands of people in the span of 4 days in honor of the temple.. The organization of the city was that of a city-state, with an organized central region. Agriculture was a thriving practice in Tenochtitlan. Because there was no room for it in the city, chinampas were developed.Chinampas were fields created on floating platforms on the lakeÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes visited the city in 1519 and was amazed. Cortes and his men were in awe at the sight of the city. They were greeted by the Aztecs with gifts and food. Despite the hospitality, Cortes challenged the Aztecs and took emperor Montezuma hostage. The Aztecs declared war and drove the Spaniards out in 1520. Cortes led later attacks on the city but most of the population was wiped by diseases that the Spaniards had brought.The city finally fell to the Spaniards in 1521. The city was demolished and rebuilt to what is now Mexico City. There are still ruins of Tenochtitlan that can still be seen today in central Mexico City. Works Cited Stearns, Peter et al. World Civilizations. 3rd ed. New York. Pearson Longman, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"Tenochtitlan. Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from https://www. courses. psu. edu/anth/anth008_cmg149/aten. html King, Heidi. Ã¢â¬Å"TenochtitlanÃ¢â¬ . The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (October 2004) Retrieved from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/teno_1/hd_teno_1. htm (October 2004)
In striking at the Ã¢â¬Ëdomestic Tranquility,' Ã¢â¬Ëcommon defense' and Ã¢â¬ËBlessings of Liberty' that the US Constitution was established to secure, the terrorist attacks of September 11 not only extinguished thousands of lives but also heralded a dangerous and unprecedented chapter in the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican experiment. Ã¢â¬Ë 9/11 represented the end of what remained of America's postÃ¢â¬â1991 innocence about the severity of global threats and confirmed the many prior warnings that the question of mainland terror was one of when, not whether, it would occur.To some observers, the attacks triggered the most sudden and dramatic change in the history of American foreign policy, bringing an abrupt and decisive end to the post-Cold War era. (Stephen, 2001) But while many declarations proclaimed a permanently transformed world, American responses instead suggested a remarkable continuity. Rather than initiating a transformation, 9/11 accelerated trends, policies and approaches th at were well established.If the attacks' most immediate political effects were certainly dramatic Ã¢â¬â the Bush administration's approval ratings soared and public confidence in the federal government attained levels unseen since the early 1960s Ã¢â¬â the dominant features of recent American politics (not least partisan polarization) remained essentially unchanged. Analogical reasoning in international affairs is as hazardous in theory as it is ubiquitous in practice; hence the question of whether 9/11 will ultimately prove as strategically significant for America as Pearl Harbor, the Cold War or the implosion of the USSR is best left for another day.(Richard, 2001) 9/11 nonetheless proved both that America remains as vulnerable to conventional and unconventional attacks as other nations and that its singular influence renders it an especially inviting target. It also demonstrated, however, that America remains exceptional in its capacity to deploy vast resources and destruct ive assets on a global scale. The rapid removal of the Taliban regime revealed a hegemonic power with neither peer nor precedent, prompting commentators to compete for adjectival correctness: Ã¢â¬Ëhyper-power,' Ã¢â¬Ëmega-power,' Ã¢â¬Ëbehemoth.Ã¢â¬Ë (Tim, 2002) Confronted by such dominance, critics are surely right to caution about the dangers accompanying such unprecedented and (relatively) unfettered power. But commentary on America frequently remains empirically poorly anchored, wrongly conflating official policies with public preferences and embracing stereo-types about (for example) mass aversion to military casualties that resisted close scrutiny long prior to 2001.The reasons why factual accuracy infrequently intrudes on familiar Ã¢â¬Ëtruisms' about the USA has received compelling analysis elsewhere (Clive, 2002) but it is in the light of such infrequency that this chapter reviews in turn American perceptions of the terrorist attacks, the responses of the Bush admini stration and Congress and 9/11's broader significance for American domestic politics and foreign policy. Terrorism used to be seen by the world's militaries as Ã¢â¬Å"low intensity conflictÃ¢â¬ and many commanders such as you were not often preoccupied with it.For us, exceptionally hot years such as 1983 or 1985 were just thatÃ¢â¬âexceptions. Now it's war. It is a war that the al Qaeda enemy formally declared in 1996, and again in 1998. It's a war made by a long series of attacks upon free peoples. The U. S. only accepted this as Ã¢â¬Å"warÃ¢â¬ at the end of 2001, but it is now affixed to the horizon. To call this war is not to say that it is a wholly military contest. If US government has a grand strategy, then this contest is political, ideological, legal, economic, and moral. It is profoundly moral.President Bush made the accurate parallel between terrorist and pirates or slave-traders. All three categories are natural enemies of humanityÃ¢â¬âan ancient concept of int ernational law, and a good one. On Saturday, the new Pope described terrorism as Ã¢â¬Å"perverse,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"cruel decision that shows contempt for the sacred right to life,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a new barbarism. Ã¢â¬ The global nations, collectively, hold the upper hand in this contest because Allies is a moral cause, and they must not ignore or abandon that moral advantage. (Gray, 2005)Two recent and ugly innovations by terror groups underscore terrorism's profound inhumanity. You may have noticed the new pattern of terror attacks on aid personnel and nongovernmental organizations. What had been rare is now appallingly common. NGOsÃ¢â¬ are studying the challenge, but have only begun. For now they often close down relief operations and withdraw in the face of terrorÃ¢â¬âa prudent response, but one that negates their whole purpose, and satisfies the attackers. Until now, NGOs have tended to want nothing from you as commanders except logistical support for their own work.Th e less contact the better, it seemed. Now, they may begin asking you to help with their security, which is a most complicated job. A second reminder of the character of terrorism is a new pattern of double-bombings. The first explosive is laid to wound and kill; this damage draws in dozens of medical professionals and Ã¢â¬Å"first responders;Ã¢â¬ (Wolf, 2003) when enough ambulances have arrived, the second timed charge detonates, redoubling the carnage. I first noticed the old Irish Republican Army do this. Then, a right-wing terrorist did it in Atlanta Georgia.The jihadis' Bali Indonesia bombings confirmed the patternÃ¢â¬âa preliminary bomb in a building drove people out into the street, where a far larger bomb murdered many of them. And then, at a fourth point on the globe (Iraq) came the August 17 bombing of a bus terminal in Baghdad. Police naturally rushed to the scene, and that's when a second bomb blew, in the station parking lot. There was a third layer to the plan. Am bulances rushed wounded to a nearby hospital, and there, awaiting them, was a suicide bomber, who then detonated.When terrorism develops such techniques it rarely regresses; we'll see more. (Clutterbuck, 2004) The moral relativists who will not understand terrorismÃ¢â¬âwho say, Ã¢â¬Å"it is nothing more than a weapon of the weakÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âshould ponder the planning in these double-bombings. How hard you commanders work to train your personnel to protect the Red Cross, to steer clear of ambulances, to avoid hospitals as sanctuaries of the wounded, even amidst actual battle. Compare that with what terrorists plot and do in peacetime, with this explicit targeting of medical personnel.The over-heated religious militants led by al Qaeda have an internationalist program. That is evident from their targeting: Nairobi, Casablanca, Istanbul, Riyadh, and Madrid. Their internationalism is just as evident from their recruitment: Saudis, Moroccans, Algerians, Somalis, Yemenis, Filipinos, and Western Europeans of all kinds. Ã¢â¬ ¦ The enemy confirms all this in how he trains: al Qaeda's camps in the Sudan, and then Afghanistan, drew tens of thousands, to some 50 training camps, from the corners of the world.In late 2001, in the Afghan war, The Allied coalition captured people from over forty countries! There was of course a Philippines training branch, and another in Indonesia. The array of foreign faces appearing in these camps was widely diverse. The jihadis' internationalism is just as evident in their ideology: as surely as a good man may be called into good and divine service from Madagascar or AmericaÃ¢â¬âand they have beenÃ¢â¬âso too might the jihadis' appeals touch a potential terrorist in Madagascar, or AmericaÃ¢â¬âand they have. There are treasure troves of al Qaeda documents.Their own words make it apparent that as a policy end, al Qaeda envisages itself as the global leader of a great coalition, and should it conquer, then the creation of a grea t Caliphate. Mullah Omar and Osama Bin Laden talked about that in AfghanistanÃ¢â¬âthere is a written record of it. If Mullah Omar's Taliban regime is any indication of how such a Caliphate would govern, very few Muslims would ever want itÃ¢â¬ ¦although the rulers, being totalitarians, would not much care if their regime were wanted. The terrorists' internationalist policy dictates an internationalist strategy.That is why the celebrated fatwa of February 1998 heralded formation of Ã¢â¬Å"The World Islamic Front for JihadÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦Why Bin Laden's speeches urge Islamic unity, a seamless community of the faithful, worldwideÃ¢â¬ ¦Why his lieutenant, and doctor, the globe-trotting Egyptian Al Zawahiri, criticizes peoples of the Islamic world when they fail to come when they are called to arms by al Qaeda. (Alexander, 2001) So US government sees al Qaeda's global reach in its targeting, recruiting, training, ideology, and recovered documents and public pronouncements. Quit e obviously, there is a world war, and war must be joined.In the face of such global ambitions and global attacks, all decent governments should ally themselves in counterterrorism. That is the first and most apparent need from the assessment of the present enemy: And at the military level, this direction explains why Commandant Michael Hagee's strategic Ã¢â¬Å"Vision,Ã¢â¬ as briefed to leaders of the US Marine Corps, states simply that Ã¢â¬Å"Deterring and defeating Irregular threats places a high priority on working with partner nationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Adams, 2002) For the U. S. , these ongoing efforts include training international officer students in military staff level and war colleges.The Marine Corps alone has over five hundred such international students and trainees. Then there are the many training missions that the larger military services carry out abroad. USMC training teams were in nine countries in 2004, but this year they're in five times as many foreign countries . The State Department has an ambitious Antiterrorism Assistance Program, which mixes political, and security matters, and has operated world-wide since 1983. One part of this, conducted through the State Department's Office of the Coordinator for Counter-terrorism, is the Foreign Emergency Support Team.Over the years, these teams have accomplished liaison with over one hundred partner countries to a limited but useful end: when a crisis occurs abroad, if that country desires U. S. technical support or advice, the mechanisms for it are understood on both sides. (Bolz, 2000) Consider as well Pakistan. Islamabad has made a remarkable and satisfying reversal of old policies. At great risk to itself, the Musharaf administration now studies, surrounds, and seizes bombers, torturers, shooters, plotters, and financiers, foreign and domestic. The Pakistani police are working even harder than the army.The country has extradited such important terrorists as Ramzi Yousef who bombed the New Yor k Trade Towers the first time (1993) and Ramzi Binalshibh, a Yemeni who apparently sought to join his friends in the 9-11 hijacking teams. (Crenshaw, 2001) By the spring of 2003 one of the news magazines wrote admiringly that arrests were coming Ã¢â¬Å"almost weeklyÃ¢â¬ in Pakistan. Few things are as satisfying as a successful trial, conviction and jailing; it puts things fight, and the world sees it. Some democracies created special counter-terrorist forces as an answer to the terrorist atrocities of the late 1960s.Many states built them then. Germany's GSGN border troops taking down the airliner held by terrorists in Mogadishu in 1978, with a devastating psychological impact on the Red Army FactionÃ¢â¬ ¦French forces boldly recapturing one of their nation's airliners in Marseilles in December 1994, snuffing out a clear precursor attack on their own capital and preventing a 9-11 in that cityÃ¢â¬ ¦Peru's commandos, quietly enduring the tensions of the four-month siege they laid for MRTA Communists holding the Japanese embassy in Lima, in 1996.When Peru's commandos finally pounced, in April 1997, it was a magnificent performance that left the bad people stretched out on the ground and the hostages reunited with their astonished families. For specialized work like counterterrorism there must be specialized forces. This is somewhat true even for dealing with a broader insurgency. There are still roles for conscripts and draftees, available in large numbers, to perform traditional duties of aid and occupation, amidst a population for 8 or 12 months somewhere abroad.But the greatest need in Afghanistan today, in Nepal today, in Iraq today, is for confident well-trained professionals who will make long deployments and then consider another tour. At the very least, there must be a sophisticated way of helping capture the lessons they have learned. (Farrell, 2002) Officers do not arrive fresh upon an insurgent scene, such as Iraq, and determine by Clausewitzean c oup d'oeil the essence of the problem, and solve it before breakfast tomorrow.Instead the fellow coming in must study, and watch, and wrestle with the language and the newness of the situation, abandon a preconception or two, and think long and hard. It was T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, who wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"Guerrilla war is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge. Ã¢â¬ Neither guerrilla war nor its antidotes have changed much since his time. Pressures to have intimate human intelligence in this age of global terrorism are very high. In a localized insurgency at least there might be certain common features of the enemy mind.But in this global struggle, the countries of origin are as diverse as the personalities arrayed against America. Policy makers have many lenses through which to study and learn, and prepare what is practical: psychology, political science, political philosophy, regional studies, sociology, and other lenses will all help us take in the character of t he enemy. You may be thinking that it is a cliche to call for better human intelligence. (Rubin, 1999) True. It is true that is a cliche, and true that we need better intelligence.In the USA, many blue ribbon panels and careful studies have demanded that America has improved on her intelligence assets as compare to that was before 9-11. In practice, this recommendation means adjustments by more than just intelligence experts. It means education and training, in good, resident, schools. It means making every naval infantry man and woman an Ã¢â¬Å"intelÃ¢â¬ collector. ( Netanyahu, 2004) It means close cooperation between military and police forces, for the police often know more, being locals, and long-time experts at observing the law-breaking sort of man.Two of the great lessons of British counter-insurgency were in emphasis on intelligence by all units, and emphasis on sharing intelligence between the military and civilian sides, to include sometimes co-locating their two infras tructures. (Solan, 2000) Washington and Langley may emphasize counter-terrorism against al Qaeda but may still disappoint the close NATO partner, Berlin, with how much intelligence Americans actually share. Perhaps Turkey finds Washington's bureaucrats too busy, or too uninterested, in the problems of the reviving Kurdish insurgency.Yet Turkish blood flows, and Kurdish killers hide just over the border in Iraq, and Americans are said to have some powers in Iraq, so Turks may demand America use influence against their Kurdish terrorists. Russia saw, so long before Americans did, the need for directly aiding the Afghan Northern Alliance led by the brilliant Ahmed Shah Massoud, against the Taliban tyranny, in the 1990s. Now, who should be surprised if Russia feels she has a call on more political support over Chechen separatism. (Wolf, 2003) We must work to measure up to the challenges of allies as well as enemies.As Winston Churchill used to say, Ã¢â¬Ëa man must never allow himself to fall below the level of events. Ã¢â¬Ë References Adams, James. Secret armies: inside the American, Soviet, and European special forces. New York, N. Y. , U. S. A. : The Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002. 440-48 Alexander, Yonah. ; Browne, Marjorie Ann. ; Nanes, Allan S. [eds. ]. Control of terrorism: international documents. (Foreword by Ray S. Cline; published in cooperation with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University). New York, N. Y. , U. S. A. : Crane, Russak, 2001.xvi, 21-25. Bolz, Frank. ; Dudonis, Kenneth J. ; Schulz, David P. The counter-terrorism handbook: tactics, procedures, and techniques. New York, N. Y. , U. S. A. : Elsevier Science, (Series in Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations), 2000. pp. 221-224 Clive Christie, Ã¢â¬ËUS Hate: A Designer Prejudice for Our Time', The Times Higher Educational Supplement, 18 Jan. 2002, p. 19. Clutterbuck, Richard L. Living with terrorism. London, G. B. : Faber and Faber, 2004. p p. 151-152 Crenshaw, Martha. Terrorism and international cooperation. Boulder, Colo.New York, N. Y. , U. S. A. : Westview Press; Institute for East-West Security Studies, (Occasional paper Series; 11), 2001. p91 Farrell, William Regis. The U. S. government response to terrorism: in search of an effective strategy. Boulder, Colo. , U. S. A. : Westview Press, (Westview Special Studies in National and International Terrorism), 2002. 139-42 Gray, John Ã¢â¬ËWhy Terrorism is Unbeatable', New Statesman, 25 Feb. 2005, pp. 50Ã¢â¬â3. Netanyahu, Benjamin. [ed. ]. Terrorism: how the West can win. London, G. B. : Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2004. 25-34 Richard A.Posner, Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001). Rubin, Barry. [ed. ]. The politics of counter-terrorism: the ordeal of democratic states. Washington, D. C. , U. S. A. : Foreign Policy Institute, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, 19 99. 117-122 Solan, Stephen. Beating international terrorism: an action strategy for preemption and punishment. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala. ; [Washington, D. C. ], U. S. A. : Air University, Air University Press; [U. S. G. P. O. ], 2000. 60-66
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
John Paul Vann is the central character of Sheehan's book, the character around whom the whole Vietnam War seems to turn. Fearless, misguided, Vann appears to stand for America itself. American ambassador and commanding general were informing the Kennedy administration that everything was going well and that the victory was theirs. Vann saw Vietnam War otherwise. In the end Vann was killed when his helicopter crashed and burned in rain and fog in the mountains of Vietnam's Central Highlands, leaving behind a most extraordinary legend.He succeeded in imposing himself as the real commander of a whole region in Vietnam, and the Pentagon, in an unprecedented move, gave him authority over all U. S. military forces in his area. He commanded as many troops as a major general. Vann never hesitated to use whatever level of force was necessary to achieve his ends, but considered it morally wrong and stupid to wreak violence on the innocent (another reason for his popularity with the anti-war p eople). The influence he wielded both within the U. S.civil-military bureaucracy and the Saigon government made him, by general agreement, the most important American in Vietnam after our ambassador and commanding general, a position recognized at his Arlington funeral, attended by the entire Washington military establishment. Neil Sheehan's book is now popular with both critics and public, and Hollywood would even think of making a film portraying an American military hero from the Vietnam War with such sympathy. DEVELOPMENT OF THEME Both John Paul Vann and Neil Sheehan went to Vietnam in the early 1960s, Vann as a military advisor, Sheehan as a reporter for United Press International (UPI).As the months passed, VannÃ¢â¬â¢s disillusionment with the warÃ¢â¬â¢s progress eventually led him to share his frustrations with Sheehan and other reporters, and the advisor became one of the correspondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ most valuable sources of information on the true dynamics of the situation ou t in the countryside. In the mid-1960s Sheehan left Vietnam for assignments in the United States, but Vann remained and, after assuming a civilian position, rose to become one of the most powerful Americans in the country.In 1972, a short time after VannÃ¢â¬â¢s death in a helicopter crash, Sheehan began work on a biography of the soldier. Sixteen long years later, the book was finally published to a chorus of critical praise. John Paul Vann went to Vietnam in March 1962 at age thirty-seven. A lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army, he served as senior advisor to the South Vietnamese ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s 7th Infantry Division, which was headquartered at My Tho in the Mekong Delta south of Saigon. An intelligent, fearless man possessed of terrific stamina and a deeply held belief in the legitimacy of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, Vann was an ideal advisor in many respects. Sheehan wrote in A Bright Shining Lie that the military manÃ¢â¬â¢s character and education had Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëcombined t o produce a mind that could be totally possessed by the immediate task and at the same time sufficiently detached to discern the root elements of the problem. He manifested the faith and the optimism of postÃ¢â¬âWorld War II America that any challenge could be overcome by will and by the disciplined application of intellect, technology, money, and, when necessary, armed force. (134)Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢But as the months passed and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) troops that he was advising continued to flounder, VannÃ¢â¬â¢s frustration grew. South Vietnamese commanders proved reluctant to commit troops to confrontations because of political concerns back in Saigon and their own instinct for self-preservation, and the rosy forecasts of American policymakers troubled him as well. Moreover, Vann felt that both the South Vietnamese government and U. S. officials did not appreciate the significance of the social problems plaguing the country, and he argued that U. S.bombing po licies and the Strategic Hamlets program (in which peasants were forcibly removed from their homes and placed in group encampments) were eroding already tenuous support for the Diem regime out in the countryside. By the end of his first year in Vietnam, wrote Sheehan, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËVann saw that the war was being lost. The ambassador and the commanding general in South Vietnam were telling the Kennedy administration that everything was going well and that the war was being won. Vann believed then and never ceased to believe that the war could be won if it was fought with sound tactics and strategyÃ¢â¬ (102).Sheehan and the other members of the Saigon press corps bucked attempts by U. S. and Vietnamese officials to spoon-feed the media information on the warÃ¢â¬â¢s progress, and relations between the camps quickly deteriorated. Within a matter of months, however, the adventurous UPI reporter had developed an effective network of independent sources and established a productive p artnership with David Halberstam of the New York Times. One of the correspondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ best sources in the U. S. military was John Paul Vann.Writing in A Bright Shining Lie, Sheehan described the relationship between Vann and the reporters in similar terms: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËVann taught us the most, and one can truly say that without him our reporting would not have been the sameÃ¢â¬ ¦. He gave us an expertise we lacked, a certitude that brought a qualitative change in what we wrote. He enabled us to attack the official optimism with gradual but steadily increasing detail and thoroughnessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (254). Sheehan noted that he and most of the other correspondents initially supported AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in Vietnam.Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËWe believed in what our government said it was trying to accomplish in Vietnam, and we wanted our country to win this war just as passionately as Vann and his captains did,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (211) Sheehan said. But the reports of Vann and other sourc es, coupled with their own firsthand observations out in the field, convinced the press corps that the U. S. prosecution of the war was fundamentally flawed. While attending the funeral for John Paul Vann in 1972, Sheehan was struck by the stature of those in attendance (from General William Westmoreland, who served as a pallbearer, to Ellsberg, who had been one of VannÃ¢â¬â¢s closest friends).Upon returning home, Sheehan secured a two-year leave of absence from the New York Times, along with a contract from a publisher, and began work on a biography of Vann. The writer felt that by studying VannÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he would also be able to examine AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in Vietnam. As he wrote in A Bright Shining Lie, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËThe intensity and distinctiveness of his character and the courage and drama of his life had seemed to sum up so many of the qualities Americans admired in themselves as a people. By an obsession, by an unyielding dedication to the war, he had come to person ify the American endeavor in Vietnam.He had exemplified it in his illusions, in his good intentions gone awry, in his pride, in his will to winÃ¢â¬ (325). As the 1970s blurred into the early 1980s, SheehanÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with VannÃ¢â¬â¢s story grew. Month after month passed by as the writer tried to reconcile VannÃ¢â¬â¢s dark secrets (a troubled childhood, a sexual appetite that doomed his army career) with the honorable soldier he had known in the Mekong Delta. And over it all lay the shadow of the war itself, the contradictions of which Sheehan continued to see encapsulated in Vann. Sheehan fell into a reclusive routine in which his waking hours were dominated by the book.In August 1986 Sheehan finally completed the manuscript for A Bright Shining Lie. Over the course of the next year, the author pared the book down to 360,000 words, still a massive work. In 1988Ã¢â¬âsixteen years after Sheehan began work on the Vann biographyÃ¢â¬âA Bright Shining Lie was finally published. Paralyzed by our own Newtonian paradigm, we defeated ourselves by persistently viewing the Vietcong as being different from us in degree, when in fact they were different in kind. Underestimating them as being different only in degree, the U. S.military often contemptuously referred to them as Ã¢â¬Å"those raggedy-assed little bastardsÃ¢â¬ (205). To Americans, the Vietcong simply had less technology to fight with; but the Vietcong knew they had a different kind of technology Ã¢â¬â the land, and they used it to great advantage against U. S. technology. In his A Bright Shining Lie, Sheehan relates a story that perfectly expresses how the Vietcong used nature in concert with their kind of technology. A Captain James Drummond is told by a prisoner that Ã¢â¬Å"the most important Vietcong training camp in the northern Delta is located in clumps of woods above a hamlet.When he gets there, Drummond finds . . . four thatched-hut classrooms furnished with blackboards under th e trees . . . Ã¢â¬ (88). The very idea that Ã¢â¬Å"blackboards under the treesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a virtual oxymoron in American thinking -could be used to defeat the United States, is, once again, Ã¢â¬Å"unthinkable. Ã¢â¬ It represents what psychiatrist Charles J. Levy calls Ã¢â¬Å"inverted warfare,Ã¢â¬ which Gibson explains as Ã¢â¬Å"the sense in which American common sense on how the world operates was reversed or inverted in VietnamÃ¢â¬ .A Bright Shining Lie confirms, that the core of the U. S. news operation in Vietnam during the crucial years from 1961 to 1963, came under the influence of a mid-level U. S. Army adviser, Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann, who was convinced that he had solved the riddle of how to galvanize what was essentially a fifteenth-century South Vietnamese army into a twentieth-century fighting force: Get rid of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, and have the United States take over the war, in toto.On January 2, 1963, the ARVN 7th Infantry Division, which was under the command of General Huynh Van Cao, carried out orders to destroy a Vietcong radio transmitter located in the hamlet of Tan Thoi in the Mekong Delta. Acting on intelligence that indicated that the transmitter was protected by a force of about one hundred Vietcong in nearby Ap Bac, Vann and his staff settled on a plan of attack that featured his usual precise calculations. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËVann saw an opportunity to use the ARVNÃ¢â¬â¢s advantages in mobility, firepower, and armor to destroy a Viet Cong unit,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ noted Harry G.Summers, Jr. in the Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War. But instead of wreaking havoc on the guerrillas (whose hit-and-run tactics had frustrated the American advisors over the preceding months), the operation proved disastrous for CaoÃ¢â¬â¢s troops. Larger-than-expected Vietcong forces at Ap Bac and Tan Thoi were ready for the attack, having intercepted radio messages concerning the upcoming operation. When the raidÃ¢â ¬â¢s first helicopters arrived, they were met with withering ground fire, and three of the H-21 helicopters and one Huey (UH-1) gunship were promptly downed.The first few minutes of the battle set the pattern for the rest of the clash. As the hours dragged by, ARVN forces committed a series of strategic blundersÃ¢â¬âsome over the objections of Vann and his staffÃ¢â¬âthat served to further deteriorate their position. Finally, Vann felt that CaoÃ¢â¬â¢s forces showed little appetite for battle, a factor that further contributed to the debacle. By the next morning the Vietcong guerrillas had slipped away, leaving behind eighty ARVN dead and another one hundred wounded. Significantly, three Americans had been killed as well.Later in the morning, Cao ordered a fraudulent air strike on the area, nearly killing Sheehan and two other Americans who were surveying the long-abandoned battlefield. In the battleÃ¢â¬â¢s aftermath, U. S. and South Vietnamese officials tried to call the clash at Ap Bac a victory, but Vann and his staff quickly disabused the press corps of any such notions. Enraged by the whole operation, Vann called the ARVN effort Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëa miserable damn performance,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ and even though correspondents who used the quote did not reveal his identity, U. S. officials familiar with Vann knew whose voice it was.Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËAs a battle it did not amount to much, but Ap Bac would have profound consequences for the later prosecution of the war,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ wrote Summers. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËPrior to Ap Bac,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Sheehan pointed out, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëthe Kennedy administration had succeeded in preventing the American public from being more than vaguely conscious that the country was involved in a war in a place called VietnamÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ap Bac was putting Vietnam on the front pages and on the television evening news shows with a drama that no other event had yet achievedÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (421). Vann retired from the army several mont hs later.When those who knew him learned of his departure, many assumed that he had selflessly sacrificed his military career so that he could comment on the war with greater freedom, and his reputation was further enhanced. His admirers were unaware that VannÃ¢â¬â¢s myriad sexual indiscretions (including a valid statutory rape charge that he ultimately beat) had permanently scarred his record, effectively limiting his advancement anyway. In 1965 Vann returned to Vietnam as a civilian, serving as a provincial pacification representative for AID (the Agency for International Development).As American involvement in the war expanded, VannÃ¢â¬â¢s authority increased, even though he continued to be an outspoken critic of some aspects of the warÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecution. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËHis leadership qualities and his dedication to the war had assisted his promotion, as had a realization by those in power in Saigon and Washington that his dissent over tactics or strategy was always meant t o further the war effort, not hinder it,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ wrote Sheehan (436). In May 1971 Vann was promoted to an advisory position that gave him authority over all U. S. military forces in VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Highlands and adjacent provinces along the central coastline.The unprecedented arrangement gave Vann more power than he could have ever wielded had he stayed in the army. By this point, some people who knew Vann felt that the years of involvement in the war had changed the man, and not for the better. They noted that Vann had adopted a much more lenient philosophy about appropriate methodologies for winning the bitter war. Those who recalled his harsh criticisms of bombing strategies earlier in the conflict for the toll that they exacted on civilians found that he had become an enthusiastic proponent of intensive bombing campaigns.Sheehan wrote about an exchange between Vann and Washington Post reporter Larry Stern that dramatically reflected VannÃ¢â¬â¢s change of heart : Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËAnytime the wind is blowing from the north where the B-52 strikes are turning the terrain into a moonscape, you can tell from the battlefield stench that the strikes are effective,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (365) Vann reportedly told Stern. In March 1972, North Vietnamese forces launched the three-pronged Easter Offensive, a bold effort to overwhelm South Vietnam by attacks on three strategic regions.All three thrusts were ultimately turned back, however, as the NVA (North Vietnamese Army) was handed a major setback. Vann was widely credited with being a key figure in the defense of An Loc, a site seventy-five miles north of Saigon that had been one of the NVAÃ¢â¬â¢s primary targets in the offensive. In June of that year, however, Vann was killed in an air crash when his helicopter, flying low over an otherwise treeless valley at night, hit a small group of trees standing over a primitive Montagnard cemetery (Montagnards are aboriginal tribespeople who make their homes in so me of VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s more mountainous areas).EVALUATION OF THE THEME AND BOOK PRESENTATION As the months passed, and disastrous events such as the Ap Bac debacle and the Buddhist uprising erupted, Sheehan emerged as one of the warÃ¢â¬â¢s finestÃ¢â¬âand most controversialÃ¢â¬âcorrespondents. He did so despite struggling with an almost paralyzing certainty that death would claim him when he went out into the field. When he first arrived in Vietnam, Sheehan had been exhilarated by violent, dangerous excursions out in the countryside, but the events at Ap Bac changed his attitude in dramatic fashion.While surveying the scene of the battle, Sheehan and two others (reporter Nick Turner and Brigadier General Robert York) had nearly been blown apart by General CaoÃ¢â¬â¢s fraudulent attack against the abandoned Vietcong positions in the area. In June 1964 Sheehan left UPI for the New York Times. A year later he returned to Saigon, where he stayed until 1966, when he was transferr ed to Washington, D. C. That same year he wrote an article, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËNot a Dove, but No Longer a Hawk,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ that reflected his growing disillusionment with AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in Vietnam. In the late 1960s he served as the newspaperÃ¢â¬â¢s Pentagon and White House correspondent.By 1971 Sheehan had come full circle; he emerged as a critic of the war. In 1971 EllsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s disenchantment with U. S. policies led him to give Sheehan a massive collection of confidential government memorandums and reports on the war that came to be known as the Pentagon Papers. To opponents of the war, the records in this archiveÃ¢â¬âcommissioned by Defense Secretary McNamara back in 1967, they included reports dating back to the 1940sÃ¢â¬âprovided stark evidence that U. S. involvement in Southeast Asia had too often been characterized by deceit, misjudgments, and bureaucratic arrogance.SheehanÃ¢â¬â¢s massive tome garnered many awards (Pulitzer Prize, National Book A ward for nonfiction, Columbia Journalism Award, Robert F. Kennedy Book Award, and others) and laudatory reviews in the months following its publication. Boosted by the recognition, the book became a best-seller. Reviewers were almost unanimous in their praise for SheehanÃ¢â¬â¢s work (the harshest dissent with the critical consensus appeared in the National Review). New York Times Book Review critic Ronald Steel commented that if there is one book that captures the Vietnam War in the sheer Homeric scale of its passion and folly, this book is it.Indeed, reviewers recognized that the book worked in large measure because of its choice of subject matter. Critics felt that, in John Paul Vann, Sheehan had found a larger-than-life figure whose experiences in Vietnam offered valuable insights into the character and nature of American involvement in the conflict. Making more sense of what happened in the conflict than most books, this is a thoughtful, well-made work. References Sheehan, Nei l. (1988). A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam. New York: Random House.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Question - Essay Example This is an indication that the big businesses are more positive towards taking more risks in the business and this is what has made them get bigger and bigger than when they started. Being a big business is defined by the number of employees that are hired in the business overall. The more the employees, the larger the organization will be (Porter 78). Big businesses however deal with tens of thousands of employees nationally and globally combined. They have these huge industries and companies that demand attention of a lot of employees from the CEO down to the subordinate staff who are also in plenty. Since these companies are handling both onshore and offshore businesses, and a lot of accounts and customers of their many different products, they have run smoothly and very effectively and this is possible only through working with many employees to handle different aspects of the business. There are employees needed to bring in customers through different marketing strategies. Before products are marketed, they need to be manufactured which means this process of obtaining the raw products and chemicals demand more employees as well. After the manufacturing and marketing, there will be needed workers to sell transport the products to the retail stores and wholesale stores as well as well as take them the products themselves. All these employees need to be paid as well and in case of further expansion, more employees will be needed and hence continuing the growth of the business. Big businesses have more investments and trade more in stocks of the companies they have invested in. They invest in many different companies and in different markets and industries in order to distribute the risks as well as ensure that they continue growing their profits and especially with the current industry that is growing the most. The large organizations have invested in the automation, energy, accounting, inventory and
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Politics and society - Essay Example The winning party is required to win approximately 20 percent of the total votes on top of winning approximately 20 percent of the legislative seats (Jez, 2010). Under the FPTP system, the pattern is repeated time and time again. In addition, the FPTP excludes minorities from fair representation. Under the rules of the system, some parties put up the most broadly accepted candidate in a particular district so as to avoid alienating the majority of electors. This then ensures that candidates, especially the black minorities do not to get a major partyÃ¢â¬â¢s nomination in majority white districts in the UK. It is quite evident that the ethnic and racial minorities across the world are far less likely to be represented in elections done under the FPTP system. The exclusion of minority groups due to the voting behavior can lead to unstable political systems (Dunleavy, 1999). Further, the FPTP system excludes women from fair representation in the legislature. The idea that the most broadly accepted candidate affects the ability of women in getting fair representation. Women are often less likely to be selected as candidates in male dominated societies as well as male dominated party structure. It quite evident across the world, that women are less likely to be elected to the legislature under the plurality systems than under the alternative vote according to Norris (2001). Politics and political parties based on clan, ethnicity or region can also be encouraged by the FPTP system. This may lead to general campaigns and policy platforms on conceptions that are attractive to the majority of the voters in their region but exclude or are hostile to others. There is the likelihood of the country being divided into geographically separate party strongholds, with little chances for parties to sell their ideology outside their home regions and cultural political base (Dunleavy, Margaret and Weir, 1998). Consequently, the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Jack Welch - A Simple Leader of Genius - Essay Example The custodial concept shows employees' orientation on money. It is known that one of the manager's needs is security, which is provided by using this concept, the result of which is simple passive cooperation. The supportive and collegial theories also take their place, main principles of them being orientation on support and self-discipline respectively. But getting to know Jack Welch closer one becomes sure that this person used none of these theories, having created his own one, which turned the top managers of the global companies into talented and oriented leaders. Jack F. Welch became a CEO in General Electric when he was 45, thus being the youngest manager of such level at the time. He spent his entire career with G.E., and with this company he has developed his concept of ever-continuous development of the company. In the late 1970's it was already becoming apparent, that the G.E. Corporation was facing a state of being a victim of the global economy. National companies were losing their consumers, because foreign companies produced better goods for lower prices, and this was accepted by Welch as a very important sign. In his work he used the idea of all businesses being No.1 or No. 2 in their area, otherwise they were to be "fixed, closed or sold" (Tichy and Sherman, 16). He sold $12 billion of low profit businesses and bought $26 billion of highly profitable ones, thus allowing the profits and sales to increase from $1.5 billion in 1980 to $5.2 billion in 1993. Welch has created a whole leadership philosophy, due to which G.E. has acquired the strongest balance sheet. Jack Welch was not simply a successful CEO - he was and is an undisputed all-time champion of the corporate leadership. When Welch became a CEO, G.E. had a great number of problems, which were long-lasting and could become invisible for most of the top managers. First of all, the earnings of the company grew too slowly, capital expenditures were too high, thus making the capital flow slow as well, productivity growth was no more than 1-2% per year. He also noted that management was taking decisions too slowly, the company was overfilled with bureaucracy and he felt that in order to keep the company flowing, he must bring it through the most radical changes that have ever been accomplished in it. He has formulated the six rules of management, which are so unique and universal at the same time that could be used not only in managing a company, but almost in every sphere of human life. 1. Control your destiny, or someone else will. According to this principle the employees must control their destiny themselves, that is, Welch gave them some kind of freedom in taking decisions. He strongly believed that this would make companies successful, opening talents and capabilities of workers. Now we are constantly amazed by how much people
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Creative Class; Importance of Economic Development and Planning - Research Paper Example Pondering over the market strategies adopted by this class, the paper also institutes the notions of the creative class namely brain drain and brain gain. In short, the paper, quoting examples, determines the validity of the claim that the creative class is mandatory for economic planning and development. Over the last few centuries, the world has prospered in many ways. The advancement in science and technology is responsible for all the development that has taken place across the globe. However, despite the era of technology and enlightenment, there are certain things that remain the same. One such thing in the social structure of an economy is the class. (Bonanni, 2004) The term Ã¢â¬ËclassÃ¢â¬â¢ is a very interesting one as it is often used to refer to a group of individuals who possess the economic influence and leverage over a certain number of people. Class, still being a part of the social structure, is a huge determinant of economic planning and development. In fact the last decade has seen a lot of theoretical work on the effect of a certain class on the development of a particular market in an economy. In the past decade, most analysts have pondered over the relationship of creativity (more appropriately the creative class) and economic development. (Atkinson, 2009) For most commentators, the explanation of economic development through the concept of creativity is a tired formula which does not really help achieve any appropriate results. (Peck, 2005) For others however, the idea of an economy that is based on skills and services is a creative one, an idea that has affected the ground rules for achieving economic development. This in tur n has affected how many cities and urban centres (that are economic hubs) have sought to manage their economic policies with a special focus on the arts, culture and other place based characteristics in order to make the cities a better place to live
Thursday, July 25, 2019
DISABILITY & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY - Essay Example One a person fall under the stated description, there are several laws and immunities that protect the fundamental human rights of the person. One of these rights is the right to stay healthy and participate in activities that keeps the person healthy (Antonio, 2005). Indeed one of the ways for a disabled person to keep him or herself is through sporting activities. Luckily, this consideration has been made at the world level to such an extent that the world Olympics committee recognizes the involvement of disabled people in Olympic Games through the Paralympics Games. Sadly though, there are repairable challenges that continue to face disabled people in the country as far as access to sports facilities is concerned. This report looks at the peculiar instance of challenges faced by disabled sports personalities in Islington Borough and these can be solved. Indeed the city is privileged to have a number of sports facilities that are enviable for the promotion of sports and constitutes a very good account of Islington Borough as a sports destination. Some of these sports facilities include fitness studios, swimming pools, squash centre, climbing walls and physical enhancement training gymnasiums. This not withstanding, there are basic prohibiting factors to the access and progressive use of these facilities by the disabled sports personalities in the Borough. The first of such challenges is the absence of a sell resourced volunteer sector to offer help and assistance to disabled sports men and women. By well resourced, reference is being made to volunteers who are well trained, professionally qualified to handle disabled people and who are well motivated to go about their duties. It must be established that people with disability are people who have been identified to needing great deal of support in order to excel in sports (Adams, 200 1). In the absence of such basic support, it will be very difficult for them
Corporate governance in Islamic banks - Essay Example In order to understand the value of this study it would be necessary to refer to the content of corporate governance. Various definition have been given for corporate governance. An indicative one is that of Pedersen who noted that Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate governance - the mechanisms by which companies are controlled and directed - is a complex subject that consists of owner-manager relations, stakeholder relations, board structures and practices, management compensation, capital structure, company law, and other variablesÃ¢â¬â¢; from another point of view corporate governance is characterized Ã¢â¬Ëas the top management process that manages and mediates value creation for, and value transference among, various corporate claimants in a context that ensures accountability to these claimantsÃ¢â¬â¢; in the same context, corporate governance is described as a tool for enhancing the control of stakeholder on a specific organization. It is clear from the above that corporate governance is usu ally developed in accordance with the interests and the perceptions of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s leading team Ã¢â¬â usually the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s board; however, there are specific rules that needs to be applied. OECD presents the legal framework in which a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate governance has to be developed. In the context of these rules it is stated that Ã¢â¬Ëall shareholders should be treated equallyÃ¢â¬â¢. In the case of banks, the development of corporate governance practices may be differentiated compared to the organizations in other industrial sectors; the high risk involve in banking activities would be the major criterion for the rules including in the corporate governance scheme developed by firms in the banking industry.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Who defines beauty - Research Paper Example Beauty is a very subjective issue and thus can only be judged by the receiver. For one, with increased education, both men and women are using more measures to determine what is beautiful and what is not. For example, men have discovered that women favor dominant males and as such men may forgo their health, safety and so on in order to acquire rank so that they can have the power that makes them attractive to women. Elliot Aronson, a social psychologist at Stanford University, argued that how one sees oneself to some extent determines how attractive others see them. This is especially important given that it is almost impossible to find a culture that appreciates oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body as being beautiful just as it is. Furthermore, we are no longer living in the Darwinian era where natural selection ruled and our purpose in life was merely mirrored towards reproduction and survival of the fittest. This means that we are no longer restricted to defining beauty within the constructs of finding a suitable mate. To put it better, finding a potential mate today involves looking for more than the ability to procreate. Today, both sexes are looking for intelligence, personality, compatibility and most of all the moral compass of the potential partner, friend, acquaintance or work mate. Unlike animals, men and women of today are seeking for greater meaning and purpose in their lives. This naturally means that our rationale of what beauty slightly differs from that of our Darwinian counterparts. All said beauty can only be judged by the receiver.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Direction of the Company Avid Technologies Inc - Essay Example From the aforementioned arguments, it is clear that the scope of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business for development is bright as the efficiency of the organization to develop digital media for not only commercial purposes but also for marketing communication opens the doors for corporate business development for the organization. This is in line with the arguments of Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes 92003)who say that the level of innovation retaining the core business strategy will leverage competitive advantage and new market development for an organization. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the marketing communication and its position in the games industries are the key areas for development to accomplish for future development. The key objectives set above can be measured against the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment in the form of market share for the organization in the aforementioned market segments. The company generates revenue mainly through the production and distribution o f digital media to clients in the film industry, games industry and other media related commercial business markets. The fact that the company pioneers in the postproduction media management and manipulation of the video in using a computer are the key to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue generation. The range of products sold by the company mainly depending upon the requirements of the customers and their specific needs with respect to the projects they handle like the movies and visual effects for a given movie project makes it clear that he companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core strategy of producing, managing and distributing digital media is the generator of revenue for theÃ organization.Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Life in the 13 Original Colonies Essay In the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, the economies of the northern and southern colonies were affected due to many different factors. Because of the different climates and geography of their land, the northern colonies and southern colonies had different resources available to them, which shaped their societies into what they are today. The resources available to the northern colonies were completely different from the resources that were available to the southern colonies. In the northern colonies, due to the climate and geography of their land, crop growth wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as successful as it was in the south. The could weather and rocky land made it hard for them so as time went on, the northern colonies became more of an industrial people and relied more on manufacturing things like naval equipment and rum. A few of the northern colonies participated in what they called a triangular trade system where New England traded rum for slaves from Africa and then these slaves were given to the west indies in exchange for sugar and molasses, which was made into rum again. The northern colonies heavily relied on this system and it was this that brought New England success. In the south, the climate was mainly warm and perfect for crop growth so the southern colonies became more agricultural. The main reason the south had such great success in the area of crop growth was because they discovered a great cash crop called tobacco. Due to itÃ¢â¬â¢s addictive nature and great taste, the demand for it was very high. The south purchased tons of slaves because farmers relied on slavery to help the success of their farms and crops. They were different from the northern colonies in this way because the north rarely used slaves. They merely transported them. Education was strongly affected by the geography and climate also, believe it or not. The North was cold and hard to grow crops in so they were more industrial based. This meant that all of the people needed to know how to read and write in order to make deals with the other nations. In the northern colonies, there were very few public schools. Therefore, the parents of children usually just hired a tutor until they went off to a university. If the family couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford a tutor, then they either sent the child to a public school, or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t educate them at all. In the south, the climate and geography was perfect for growing crops. Therefore most people lived on large farms called plantations. There was less emphasis on education in the south because most of the people wereÃ slaves or indentured servants. Also, even many of the landowners didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to read or write because not much is needed to know in order to farm and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about trading overseas. They left that to the north. Ultimately, the geography and climate of the northern and southern colonies was the main factor that shaped the societies into what they are today. For instance, the north had horrible luck in climate for crop growth, which made them more of an industrial group of settlers. The south thrived on crop growth, which made them more of an agricultural group of settlers.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Twisted Hot Yogas target market Market Opportunity Twisted Hot Yoga does not have any direct competition in the location of Aspen Estates and therefore there is the opportunity to target the higher income level consumers surrounding that area. Due to only having one recreation centre near aspen estates in a continuously growing community, Twisted Hot Yoga can give access to their healthy conscious consumers a new hot yoga studio fulfilling many of the new fitness conscious trends. This particular area of the city, the South West quadrant, is currently in the process of expansion. There are many communities surrounding Aspen Woods that are being developed. Up to this date, there are no hot yoga studios in the surrounding area of Aspen Woods. Target Market Twisted Hot Yogas target market can be defined as higher income health conscious consumers. More specifically, women between the ages of 20 and 34 that live in the South West part of Calgary within and surrounding the new communities of Aspen Woods. This specific target market takes pride in healthy busy lifestyles and belongs in an active community (Environics analytics, 2010). Market Size Based on a 2008 Yoga in America study, it was found that Americans spend 5.7 billion dollars a year on yoga classes and products, including equipment, clothing, vacations and media (DVDs, videos, books and magazines), showing an 87% increase since the previous study in 2004 (Yogajournal.com, 2010). The study also found that 6.9% of US adults or 15.8 million people practice yoga and out of those who do not, the study found that 8% or 18.3 million Americans said they were very or extremely interested in yoga (Yogajournal, 2010). The data that was collected on age, gender and other demographic factors showed that out of all the yoga practitioners, 72.2% are women, 27.8% are men, 40.6% are 18 to 34 years old; 41% are 35 to 54; and 18.4% are over 55 (Yogajournal.com, 2010). The study concluded that almost half of these current practitioners started doing yoga to improve their overall health. Market Trends and Opportunities that are Emerging Bikram Yoga: According to CTV news in 2002, hot yoga which is also known as Bikram, was a raging trend across Canada as well as the hottest trend in exercise (2010). Holistic Fitness: Fitness trends in the near future are said to be taking a customized approach to the particular needs and lifestyles of individuals (Euromonitor, 2010). Holistic fitness, group sweat sesh, and get fit quick are the leading future fitness trends around the globe (Euromonitor, 2010). Todays research shows a shift from hitting the gym to attain the ideal body to now a more holistic approach to healthy living. The holistic approach is discussed as reaping the benefits of exercise (Yogajournal.com, 2010). People nowadays are more concerned with getting back into shape physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. According to Euromonitor international, the market for healthy lifestyles is much greater due to the increase in obesity rates (Euromonitor, 2010). This trend is adapting to the 21st century consumers that have busy lifestyles regarding work, family, and social life demands. A German company that specializes in holistic therapy stated that it supports indiv iduals to find personal balance, to relax our mind, and to experience something that is beyond thoughts, analysis, stress and separation (Euromonitor, 2010). A US trends forecaster has predicted in a trends journal that Whole Health Healing will become very popular and part of the public awareness by 2011. Services, products and practitioners furthering a holistic approach will be the cutting edge of a trend that will grow for decades (Euromonintor, 2010). Group Sweat Sesh: The group sweat sesh trend is moving away from personal trainers, exclusive spas, and home fitness training as the craze is said to soon lose some of its appeal. Keeping up with healthy trends and staying fit is nowadays said to be a group effort (Euromonitor, 2010). Having groups of people being trained by an instructor is said to be a perfect fit with the demand for a more budget friendly, more social and fun exercise culture (Euromonitor, 2010). Get Fit Quick: Consumers these days want to get fit quick and see results faster. The continuing trend of body-conscious consumers and what is called the busy-busy society will still be looking for quick fixes, meaning quicker ways to get fit faster (Euromonitor, 2010). Going green: Twisted Hot Yoga will be opening up a Bikram yoga studio that will use all economically friendly products such as bamboo floors and clay walls. The trend of going green is an important factor when opening up a hot yoga studio and therefore, Twisted Hot Yoga will be able to offer its consumers a natural environment as well as greater awareness to keep the community a better place. Use of Yoga as Medical Therapy: Doctors and therapists now often recommend yoga as medical therapy. Yoga as medicine represents the next great yoga wave (yogajournal.com, 2010). A 2008 study found that in the next few years, we will be seeing a lot more yoga in health care settings and more yoga recommended by the medical community as new research shows that yoga is a valuable therapeutic tool for many health conditions (yogajournal.com, 2010). Demographic Analysis The above chart represents the percentage of women between the ages of 20-34 living in the surrounding neighborhoods of Aspen Woods. Using data collected from the GIS mapping (see appendix), West Springs has the greatest percentage in comparison to the other areas in the South West. West Springs is currently in the process of developping 96 residential homes, six buildings consisting of a total of 300 apartments and 55,000 square feet of commercial space which gives Twisted Hot Yoga the opportunity to expand their business and their target market in the future (Jomaa, personal communication, 2010). Twisted Hot Yoga will focus on two customer groups: Upper Income Cosmopolitan Elite and Middle Income Suburban Gentry. Demographic and Psychographic Analysis Upper Income Cosmopolitan Elite Age: 20-34 Sex: 80% female, 30% male Health/Lifestyle: Canadas wealthiest lifestyle, fitness-minded Canadians who belong to health clubs, workout at home, enjoy pilates, yoga and cross-country skiing. This group is very active in the community, volunteering on community projects and making various donations. (Environics analytics, 2010) Twisted Hot Yogas Selling Point: Convenient location, close to the new developing areas, can be attended at any hours during the day, flexible hours Middle Income Suburban Gentry Age: 20-34 Sex: 80% female, 30% male Health/Lifestyle: Canadas up and coming business class, spenders, fitness conscious, much more likely than average Canadians to jog, take aerobics classes, play racquet sports and basketball. Many of these individuals take pride in their healthy lifestyles. (Environics analytics, 2010) Twisted Hot Yogas Selling Point: Can be attended before or after work, close to new developing areas, relieve stress after work and relaxing the mind and body Twisted Hot Yogas target markets enjoy living healthy lifestyles and have higher disposable income. According to Statistics Canada, individuals in higher income groups are more likely to engage in physical activity during their leisure time (2010). Geographic Analysis Distance from surrounding communities to Aspen Landing (Twisted Hot Yoga) Aspen Woods 1.2 km 2 mins Strathcona Park 2.9 kn 4 mins Signal Hill 3.6 km 6 mins Christie Park 3.1 km 5 mins Patterson 5.0 km 8 mins Coach Hill 4.5 km 6 mins Springbank Hill 2.2 km 4 mins Discovery Ridge 5.9 km 12 mins West Springs 2.6 km 5 mins Twisted Hot Yoga targets the surrounding communities of Aspen Woods. The distance from the surrounding communities to the studio is an important factor as Twisted Hot Yoga promotes going green and saving the community. Health conscious consumers can actively participate in going green by not having to drive to the studio. Location Based on Twisted Hot Yogas target market, the selected location for Twisted Hot Yogas studio will be in the new developed area of Aspen Woods. This area is called Aspen Landing shopping center and is located on the corner of 17th avenue and 85th street SW. Aspen Landing consists of 175,000 square feet of retail space and 40,000 square feet of premium second floor office space and serves the dominant community shopping centre in West Calgary (Aspenlanding, 2010). Aspen Woods community social statistics shows that in 2009, total population in that area was 2,830, indicating a 454.9% change since 2005 (City of Calgary, 2010). Based on the following statistics, Twisted Hot Yoga is targeting a continuously growing community. Aspen Woods is said to be one of Calgarys most desirable Estate communities to live in (Calgary Real Estate, 2010). Competition There are currently no other Bikram yoga studios in the neighborhood of Aspen Woods. Twisted Hot Yoga has the opportunity to provide the new and surrounding communities within that specific South West area, a studio that is of short distance from each area. Trends Aspen Woods has been described to be a unique community that offers prestigious shopping within walking distance. There is a variety of stores that offer a wide range of services and products (Calgary Real Estate, 2010). Calgary Real Estate describes Aspen Woods as living in the inner city but surrounded by a prestigious community of estate homes and condos (2010). David Parker wrote an article in the Calgary Herald July 1, 2010 in relation to the Strong community at Aspen Landing (2010). A man by the name of Scarcello was hired by the Vancouver -based land owner, Springbank Land Company to design an upscale urban village style retail centre to bring trendy 17th avenue, Kensington and 4th street to the suburbs (Parker, 2010). The article states that the centre was designed to provide the surrounding estate style communities a place to congregate as well as to dine and shop (Parker, 2010). It was also said that this center provides a enjoyable pedestrian area without the usual big pa rking lots as well as the boardwalk which is designed for visitors to be able to enjoy what they call a bandstand-public space overlooking the water (Parker, 2010). The trendy eating places in Aspen Landing have become very popular. Some of these include Broken Plate, Wok Wok, Thai Tai, and the very tempting Crave Cupcakes (Parker, 2010). ). Aspen Landings unique village concept centre is designed to create an intimate atmosphere with an emphasis on charm (Aspenlading, 2010). Rent Price and Size Through personal communication with a West Springs Landing commercial developer, rent price for Twisted Hot Yoga will be based on square footage. The average rent price for the South West Area is going for approximately 30 to 35 dollars a square foot (Jomaa, personal communication, 2010). Through further research on available commercial space, each available section is between 2,500-5,000 sq ft. Twisted Hot Yoga would need around 2,500 square feet in order to provide customers with a large enough yoga room. (Calgary Real Estate, 2010) Read more: http://www.calgaryherald.com/business/Strong+community+Aspen+Landing/3223205/story.html#ixzz136PUSBWB http://aspenlanding.ca/?page_id=2 http://www.hotyogastudiodesign.com/where_to_start.php Many studios begin with an initial phone consutation. To get the most out of your copnversation with Chad, have as much information available about your site as possible. For instance, have you signed your lease? Is the power gas or electric? What is the square footage? What kind of plumbing already exists in the space (bathrooms, etc)? This initial conversation will familiarize Chad with the extent of your studios needs and direct to you the next step. In certain situations, a site visit is set up at this time for Chad to see the space first hand. SUPPLIES http://www.calgary.ca/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_104_0_0_35/http;/content.calgary.ca/CCA/City%20Hall/Business%20Units/Community%20and%20Neighbourhood%20Services/Social%20Research%20Policy%20and%20Resources/Community%20Profiles/Community%20Profiles.htm http://www.calgarycommunities.com/communities/strathcona_christie.php Aspen Hills Map http://www.carma.ca/us/OurCommunities/Calgary/~/media/Communities%20Maps/aspenhills%20map.ashx Aspen Landing http://aspenwoodscalgaryrealestate.com/about/aspen-landing/ TRENDY HERALD http://www.calgaryherald.com/business/Strong+community+Aspen+Landing/3223205/story.html Aspen Woods $ 376,445 Strathcona Park $ 175,108 Signal Hill $ 132,380 Coach Hill $ 151,475 Patterson $ 155,330 Christie Park $ 198,427 Springbank Hill $ 177,248 Discovery Ridge $ 194,226 West Springs $ 144,067 Aspen Woods 0.1584 Strathcona Park 0.1184 Signal Hill 0.1399 Coach Hill 0.1989 Patterson 0.1756 Christie Park 0.0826 Springbank Hill 0.2031 Discovery Ridge 0.1804 West Springs 0.2566 Yoga is not only about teaching yoga its about going above and beyond and making a difference in the community. Market Segmentation Twisted Yoga will focus on four types of customer groups: Upper Income Cosmopolitan Elite: This group is the core segment of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.. Their demographic and psychographic characteristics are the following: Ages: Sex: Family Income: Health/Lifestyle: Canadas wealthiest lifestyle, fitness-minded Canadians who belong to health clubs, workout at home, enjoy pilates, yoga and cross-country skiing. This group is very active in the community, volunteering on community projects and making various donations. Social Pattern: Twisted Yogas selling point: Middle Income Suburban Gentry: Health/Lifestyle: Canadas up and coming business class, fitness conscious, much more likely than average Canadians to jog, take aerobics classes, play racquet sports and basketball. Many of these individuals take pride in their healthy lifestyles. Urban Downscale: Canadian spenders, stay fit doing pilates and yoga. According to CTV news in 2002, hot yoga also known as Bikram was a raging trend across Canada as well as the hottest trend in exercise (2010). The study, which analyzed data from the 2005Ã Canadian Community Health Survey, found that age, sex and level of income were among the factors that influenced an individuals level of physical activity. According to Statistics Canada, individuals in higher income groups were more likely to engage in physical activity during their leisure time. With new government initiatives of going green, Twisted Yoga provides not only classes to consumers, but also goes above and beyond to help make a difference in the community. Geographic Demographic Psychographic Middle Income Urban Professionals: This group is the core segment of potential students of GWYC.Ã Their demographic characteristics are the following: Ages: 26-40. Sex: 30% male, 70% female. Family Income: $30,000-$50,000. Health/Lifestyle Issues: Active individuals that are focused on healthy food and dieting.Ã Over 70% of this group are members of gyms. Approximately, 40% of potential customers have taken yoga classes before. Social Pattern:Ã Will more likely attend as part of group.Ã Centers selling point:Ã Close to work.Ã The session lowers stress.Ã Can be attended with workmates as group activity.Ã Upper Income: The upper income customer is a secondary target group.Ã Their demographic characteristics are the following: Ages: 40-60. Sex: 30% male, 70% female. Family Income: $60,000+. Health/Lifestyle Issues: Active individuals that are focused on healthy food and dieting.Ã Over 90% of this group are members of gyms. Social Pattern:Ã Will more likely attend alone. Centers selling point:Ã Close to work.Ã The session lowers stress Read more: http://www.bplans.com/yoga_center_business_plan/market_analysis_summary_fc.cfm#ixzz12jE7sIS6 http://www.yogajournal.com/for_teachers/983?page=3 http://www.yogaintheworkplace.ca/2005/01/statistics-canada-released-canadian.html The percentage of adults, age 20 to 39, at risk for health problems because of expanding waistlines has quadrupled in the last 30 years, from 5% to 21% for men, and from 6% to 31% in women. BetweenÃ 1981Ã andÃ 2009, fitness levels of Canadian children and youth, as well as those of adults, declined significantly, according to the first findings from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). This is the most comprehensive national survey ever conducted in Canada to determine fitness levels. The CHMS captured key information relevant to the health of Canadians by means of direct physical measurements, such as body measurements, cardio-respiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitne Target Market How old are they? What gender are they? Where do they live? What is their family structure (number of children, extended family, etc.)? What is their income? What do they do for a living? What is their lifestyle like? How do they like to spend their spare time? What motivates them? What is the size of your target market? But dont stop here when youre writing a business plan. To define your target market, you need to ask the specific questions that are directly related to your products or services. For instance, if you plan to sell computer-related services, you need to know things such as how many computers your prospective customer owns. If you plan on selling garden furniture and accessories, you need to know what kinds of garden furniture or accessories your potential customers have bought in the past, and how often. Projections About The Target Market What proportion of your target market has used a product similar to yours before? How much of your product or service might your target market buy? (Estimate this in gross sales and/or in units of product/service sold.) What proportion of your target market might be repeat customers? How might your target market be affected by demographic shifts? How might your target market be affected by economic events (e.g. a local mill closing or a big-box retailer opening locally)? How might your target market be affected by larger socioeconomic trends? How might your target market be affected by government policies (e.g. new bylaws or changes in taxes)? Writing the Market Analysis Section of the Business Plan Once you have all this information, youll write the Market Analysis in the form of several short paragraphs. Use appropriate headings for each paragraph. If you have several target markets, you may want to number each. (See the sidebar for a sample of this section of the business plan, from the Royal Bank.) Remember to properly cite your sources of information within the body of your Market Analysis as you write it. You and other readers of your business plan will need to know the sources of the statistics or opinions that youve gathered from others. The How to Write a Business Plan instructions continue on the next page are tips for researching the market analysis section of the business plan, including sources for Canadian information. Online Market Research Sources When youre researching the Market Analysis section of the business plan, Statistics Canada is an excellent place to start your market research. Their Community Profiles offer free information about all Canadian communities. Here youll find information such as Earnings and Work statistics, conveniently presented for easy comparison between the community and the province its located in. You may also want to take a look at Statistic Canadas Studies section; you might find one thats relevant to your market research. In Doing Industry Research When Writing a Business Plan, I wrote about several other excellent online sources of information for researching the business plan, such as provincial and territorial statistics offices and Canadian Economy Online, which may also be useful when youre researching the Market Analysis. GDSourcing Research Retrievals Canadian Market Resources is a must-visit page when youre researching online; it lists free and low-cost sources of demographic and psychographic data geared to small businesses. Offline Market Research Sources But there are also a great many local resources for information about your target market that youll want to explore. Besides the local library, the local Chamber of Commerce, Board of Trade, City Hall, Economic Development Centre, local government agents office, provincial business ministry, local phone book and yellow pages will all have information that will help you define your target market and provide insights into trends. Doing Your Own Market Research These are all secondary sources of information (Others have conducted the research and compiled the information.) You may also want to conduct your own market research (use primary data). For instance, you might want to design a questionnaire and survey your target market to learn more about their habits and preferences relating to your product or service. My article, Do-It-Yourself Market Research, explains the basics of market research and gives tips for sampling and accessing your target market. Does all this sound time-consuming? It is. But it needs to be done if your business plan is going to have any validity. You can have the most fantastic product or service in the world, but if no ones interested in buying it, it will just gather dust. If you dont have the time or the research skills to thoroughly define your target market yourself, hiring a person or firm to do the market research for you can be a wise investment. Statistics Canada http://sbinfocanada.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJzTi=1sdn=sbinfocanadacdn=moneytm=38gps=347_226_1259_621f=00su=p284.9.336.ip_p649.3.336.ip_tt=2bt=1bts=1zu=http%3A//cansim2.statcan.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.exe%3FLang%3DE%26AS_Action%3DFind%26ResultTemplate%3DStudies/StudiesHome1%26AS_Univ%3D1 Statistics Canada, Higher income individuals http://sbinfocanada.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJzTi=1sdn=sbinfocanadacdn=moneytm=38gps=347_226_1259_621f=00su=p284.9.336.ip_p649.3.336.ip_tt=2bt=1bts=1zu=http%3A//cansim2.statcan.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.exe%3FLang%3DE%26AS_Action%3DFind%26ResultTemplate%3DStudies/StudiesHome1%26AS_Univ%3D1
Climate Of Lahore And Thermal Comfort Environmental Sciences Essay Chapter 2 2.1 Introduction Climate has great effect on building for its electricity consumption and building performance. Energy efficient design requires the consideration of the climate. The overall heating and cooling requirements in the buildings is controlled by climate during summer and winter season. As we have selected our site in Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab and kala shah kaku is located in Lahore region therefore the description of the climatic data of Lahore region is given below. 2.2 Climatic classification: Climate can be classified in terms building design in which the country will be divided into five zones in such a way that the difference of climate from zone to zone can be seen in the building design, gauranting some special provision for each zone. Based on these criteria, there are five major climatic zones, Hot-dry Hot-humid Cold Temperate Composite Types of climate Typical Characteristics Cold Excessive heat loss for most of the year Minimum Temperature: below -15 Ã °C Temperate Excessive heat lost for part of year Inadequate heat loss for part of year Temperature changes: -30 Ã °C to 30 Ã °C Hot/Dry Overheating for most part of the year Dry air allow evaporation Temperature ranges: -10 Ã °C to 45 Ã °C High radiation Strong Winds Hot/Humid Overheating for most of year Humid air inhibits cooling Temperature often above 20 C Mean relative humidity around 80 % High rainfall in certain months Table 2.1 typical characteristics of different types of climates 2.3 Climatic zones of Pakistan: Pakistan has a wide range of climatic conditions. The Northern and North- Western parts of Pakistan are cooler, the centre of the Punjab is extremely hot and semi-arid, and the Baluchistan is cool and arid whereas the coastal strip is warm and humid. In cold regions, during the winter temperature drops well below the zero. In the desert regions, the maximum temperature remains above 40Ã °C during most of the summer period; with a peak often approaching 50Ã °C.The climatic regions have been divided based on various criteria. Fig 2.1 map of climatic zones of Pakistan 2.4 Climate of Lahore Region: Lahore lies 217 meters above sea level and it lies between 31Ã °15 and 31Ã °45 North latitude and 74Ã °1 and 74Ã °39 East longitude. On the North and West Lahore is bounded by Sheikhupura district, Wagah surrounds Lahore on east, and on the south of Lahore there is Kasur District. The river Ravi flows on the North of Lahore. Lahore city has a total land area of 404km2. The Lahore region comes under the normal composite zone, according to climatic zone map. It lies near the hot dry zone and in summer the wind direction is such that the wind blows northeast towards southwest of the city affecting the climate of Lahore region. The effect of hot dry zone starts from March and remains till September as the wind direction is southwest which means from hot dry zone towards Lahore region. The main features of this season are that the winds blown are hot and full of dust during the daytime but are cooler in night. Throughout the day very strong wind blows. The climate of Lahore region can be divided into the following broad categories: 2.4.1 Hot and dry: Hot and dry weather is found in the months of March and April. In these months the air is dry with the clear sky and no sea breeze to check the excessive heat as the Lahore region is located more than 1000 km from the nearest sea, the temperature rise is sharp. In the mid-March the maximum temperature reaches up to 90 F and till the middle of April temperatures reaches up to 100 F. Due to clear sky, nights are cooler having the average temperature of nearly 65 F (18 Ã °C). The rainfall is very less in this duration. 2.4.2 Very hot and dry: In the months of May and June the weather of Lahore is very hot and dry and the heat is at its peak in these months. In the second week of May, the temperature reaches up to 110 F (43 Ã °C).The heat is oppressive, humidity level is low with very hot and dry wind which is called loo in local language blowing most of the time. The month of June still remains hotter with the temperature sometimes reaching to 119 F (48 Ã °C). However in June due to intense low pressure created by the extreme heat, sometimes some moisture from Arabian Sea finds its way to this region and causes rain which for the brings the temperature down temporarily. 2.4.3 Hot and wet: The months of July to September are rainy. Monson clouds travel from the Bay of Bengal and after traveling about 100 km over India reaches Pakistan and enter Lahore from the South- East. This rain system in these months called Monsoons. This is a regular characteristic of the Punjab, in this country. The weather is cool and pleasant when it rains, otherwise hot and humid. Although the temperature decreases significantly, from nearly 106 F ( 41 Ã °C ) just before the monsoons starts in Lahore to about 95 F ( 35 Ã °C ) but as the monsoon arrives there is the increase in the relative humidity which increases from less than 25% to more than 65%. The high temperature along with the excessive humidity makes the weather very exhausting. Moreover sometimes the rain falls with such an avalanche that it drowns the low lying area and people have to undergo great hardships so this weather is a mixed blessing. 2.4.4 Warm and dry: Warm and dry weather remains in the months of October and November. Since the monsoon stops at the end of September, the weather again becomes dry again but the temperature is considerably less hot this time. The dry continental air remains in the region. The temperature is moderate to warm during days whereas the weather is cooler in nights. The average high temperature is nearly 85 F (29 Ã °C) and at night due to dry air temperatures it can decrease to 53 F (12 Ã °C) especially at the end of October or early November. There is no rain in this season and this season is the driest season as compared to other seasons. This extreme dryness creates a lot of dust and haziness which results in pollution in the environment. 2.4.5 Cool and dry: The most pleasant months of all are December January February in Lahore. This is the most perfect weather of Lahore. The peak high temperature is nearly 68 F (20 Ã °C) and the peak low temperature is nearly 41 F (6 Ã °C). The climate remains cool, refreshing and sunny. However sometimes, a rain bearing system known as western disturbance which has its source in Mediterranean Sea affects the Lahore region and causes rain. But the rain is not so heavy neither it remains for a long duration. So the weather most of the times remains sunny, dry and refreshing. In fact, the climate of Lahore is hot and dry for the maximum period of the year with a short winter period with very refreshing weather. 2.5 Climatic indicators of Lahore: The table below displays average monthly climate indicators in Lahore which is based on 8 years of historical weather readings. Temperature in: Fahrenheit Table 2.2 average monthly climate indicators in Lahore 2.6 Hot dry climate: The hot dry equatorial land lying between the two mean annual isotherms of 68Ã °F (20Ã °C) has regions where the temperature during the summer season may reach 43.3Ã °C or may exceed and the vapor pressure is below 25millibars. 2.6.1 Elements of hot dry climate: 1 Seasonal variation 2 Air temperature 3 Humidity 4 Precipitation 5 Wind 6 Sky conditions and solar radiation 7 Dust storm 220.127.116.11 Seasonal variation: In these regions there are two major seasons; hot season winter Fig 3.2 Monthly averages of the minimum and maximum daily temperatures. Ã °C/Ã °F 18.104.22.168 Air temperature: The main features of the climate are temperature remains high during the day 80-130Ã °F (26.67-54.44Ã °C) in the summer months along with strong sunlight reflecting pitilessly from light dry and parched earth. There is however a big difference between summer and winter temperatures due to the varying altitude of sun. During winter the day temperature is usually as high as 90Ã °F (32.22Ã °C) but the temperature is quite low at nights ,whereas during summer the temperature goes down to 50Ã °F(10Ã °C) compared with 70F (21.11C) at night. 22.214.171.124 Humidity: Humidity remains low, Relative humidity varies with the air temperature. It can go below 20% in evening to over 40% at night. V.P fairly steady changing with location and season from about 500-1500 N/m2 126.96.36.199 Precipitation: The amount of rainfall or precipitation is generally noted as the average mm/day or mm/month which provides a beneficial indication regarding seasonal changes. Usually, average maximum rainfall in 24 hours or the average number of days in which a certain amount (in cm.) of rainfall happened is also given. This data is beneficial as an indicator of the rain intensity, which will affect the design of windows, roofs and sewerage etc. July and August are the months in which most rainfall occur, whereas June and September also have some rainy days. For the rest of the year, hardly any rain fall occurs in Lahore. Based on temperatures and precipitation data, during the hot and rainy season it is not advised to go between June and September. The rest of the year is dry with temperate daytime temperatures. Fig 3.3 Precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. 188.8.131.52 Sky conditions and solar radiations: The skies are without clouds for the most of the period of the year where as frequent dust haze and storms occur mostly in the afternoon. Direct solar radiation is severe and is amplified by radiation reflected from the barren and light colored landscape. Fig 3.4 Monthly average numbers of hours of sunshine per day. 184.108.40.206 Wind: Winds are mostly native; they are generally low in the morning however increasing towards afternoon and are maximum in the afternoon, most commonly accompanied by whirlwinds of dust and sand. 220.127.116.11 Dust storms: Dust storms mostly occurs on summer afternoons which is the most intolerable part of the day , when routine winds blow at 15-220 miles per hour. These dust storms also occurs in other parts of the day i.e. in the evening and nights. 2.7 Climatic design of building: Climate has a great effect on building performance and electricity consumption of the building. The process of recognizing, deducing and controlling climatic effects at the building is perhaps the most difficult part of building design. The main objectives of climatic design of building should include: To minimize electricity cost of a building. To take benefit of maximum of natural energy instead of mechanical system and electricity. To provide comfortable and healthy environment for inhabitants. 2.8 Factors affecting climatic design: The native micro-climate and site factors influence the actual environmental conditions of the building. Some important factors related to site should be included while making the climatic analysis: Topography- elevation, slopes, hills and valleys, ground surface conditions. Vegetations height, mass, silhouette, texture, location, growth patterns. Built forms nearby buildings, surface conditions Important thermal design factors which should be considered include: solar heat gain, conduction heat flow and ventilation heat flow. The design variables in architectural terms which are important to be considered are: Shape surface-to-volume ratio; orientation; building height. Building fabric materials and construction; thermal insulation; surface qualities; shading and sun control. Fenestration the size, position and orientation of windows; window glass materials; external and internal shading devices Ventilation air-tightness; outdoor fresh air; cross ventilation and natural ventilation. 2.9 Thermal comfort: There is no approved standard for thermal comfort. This is not astonishing, as people can and do live in a wide range of climates from the equator to high latitudes. An Internationally- accepted definition of thermal comfort, used by ASHRAE, is that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment (ISO7330). Perceptions of this environment are influenced by air temperature, radiant temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, activity and clothing. Fig 3.5 achieving comfort in buildings 2.9.1 The comfort zone: The Comfort Zone means the range of temperature conditions of air movement, humidity and exposure to direct radiations, under which a normally clothed person feels comfortable. This will differ for Indoor conditions as compared to Outdoor conditions. This will also vary for different cultures and regions and varying climate conditions. As an Architects we use our buildings to not only create comfortable inside environments, but also aesthetical and beneficial spaces outside our buildings. 2.9.2 Thermal comfort index: A thermal comfort index serves the objective to evaluate the effect of environmental factor on the thermal feeling of inhabitants. Number of methods have been used in the previously to evaluate the thermal comfort level. However it is not possible to gratify every person in a building and a small number of persons are always discontented with the thermal environment due to individual variations. Several efforts have been made to produce a subjective and quantitative way of representing the thermal comfort. Thermal comfort condition in tropical summer conditions is given by Sharma and All at the Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India. The ranges and optimum values are given in table. Thermal sensation Range Ã °C Optimum value Ã °C Slightly cool 19-25 22 Comfortable 25-30 27.5 Slightly warm 30-34 32 Table 3.3: temperature ranges in different thermal zones 2.9.3 Optimal settings for indoor temperature: Researchers have carried out much research on the most suitable comfort conditions, and have come up with general comfort results like effective warmth, the recent comfort standards set by ASHRAE (American society of heating, refrigerating and air condition engineers) for an individual performing light work are: Thermal comfort conditions: Air temperature 73-77 F Relative humidity below 60 % Mean radiant temp equal to air temperature Air velocity 10-45 ft/min
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The media began to report upon child abuse when society decided that it was no longer a family issue. A study conducted by Fishman in 1978, stated that crimes perceived as Ã¢â¬Å"family mattersÃ¢â¬ , such as child abuse and wife beating, were keep private because they were too common to warrant interest from journalists (McDevitt, p. 264, 1996). In fact, public attention to child abuse as a problem within our society Ã¢â¬Å"has often been tied to media attention on the subjectÃ¢â¬ (McDevitt, p. 262, 1996). The mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in reporting child abuse is to help deter child abuse perpetrators and to inform the public. The media has the ability to make a negative or positive impact on the preception of child abuse. The publications about child abuse inform the public about different types of child abuse and neglect and incidents that happen within their community, and how to report child abuse. They serve to Ã¢â¬Å"sensitize, arouse public opinion on issues, influence policymakers, and call problem agencies to accountÃ¢â¬ (McDevitt, p. 270, 1996). Understanding Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse is prevalent within our society. Some child experts Ã¢â¬Å"argue that almost all parents are guilty of emotional maltreatment of child at some time or anotherÃ¢â¬ (Crosson-Tower, p. 211, 2010). However, it remains Ã¢â¬Å"the most difficult type of abuse or neglect to define or isolateÃ¢â¬ (Rees, p. 59, 2010). While physical abuse leaves detectable signs like scars and bruises, emotional abuse is hidden deep within a person. It lacks the public profile of sexual or physical abuse (Rees, p. 59, 2010). Emotional abuse can be understood as the Ã¢â¬Å"failure to provide children with an emotional environment conducive to adequate psychological, developmental and physical progress to ac... ... Goldman, R. (2011, March 7). Jorge and Carmen Barahona's alleged beating death of daughter called 'subhuman'. ABC News, pp. 1-2. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/US/police-jorge-carmen-barahona-beat-death-adopted-daughter/story?id=13077739#.TyF0fPlG3xg Green, T. D. (2012, January 17). Alleged child rape, torture recounted in trial. The Leaf Chronicle, pp. 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.theleafchronicle.com/article/20120118/NEWS01/201180314/Alleged-child-rape-torture-recounted IJzendoom, M., Euser, E., Prinzie, P., Juffer, F., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. (2009). Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparetns but not with adoptive parents. 369-375: Child Maltreatment. McDevitt, S. (1996). The impact of news media on child abuse reporting. Child Abuse & Neglect, 261-274. Rees, C. A. (2010). Understanding emotional abuse. Arch Dis Child, 59-67.